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BY 101 Exam 2 Part 4

Coenzymes deliver electrons for____ ATP synthesis
Electron Transfer Chain Organized arrays of enzymes, coenzymes, and other proteins that accept and donate electrons in a series
Photosynthesis The synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic molecules using the energy of light
Light Travels in____ Waves
Wavelength The distance between the crests of two successive waves of light (nm).
Pigment(s) An organic molecule that selectively absorbs light of a specific wavelengths; Photosynthetic organisms used to capture the energy of the sunlight
Chlorophyll and Accessory Pigments Absorb most wavelengths of visible light
Chloroplast An organelle that specializes in photosynthesis in plants and many protists; May have evolved from bacteria through endosymbiosis
Thylakoid Membrane Two outer membranes that surround the storm and innermost membrane
Photosystems (I & II) Groups of molecules on the thylakoid membrane that work as a unit to begin the reactions of photosynthesis; Convert light energy into chemical energy
The equation for photosynthesis 6H2O (water) + 6CO2 (carbon dioxide) --> 6O2 (oxygen) + C6H12O6 (glucose)
Light-Dependent Reactions Light energy is transferred to ATP and NADPH; Water molecules are split, releasing O2
Light-Independent Reactions Energy in ATP and NADPH drives synthesis of glucose and other carbohydrates from CO2 and water
Light-harvesting complexes ___ Absorb the energy
Electrons lost from photosystem II are replaced by ___ of water molecules Photolysis
Photolysis Process by which light energy breaks down a molecule such as water; Water dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxygen
Light energy is converted to ___ Chemical Energy
First Step in Light-Dependent Reactions Entry of electrons from a photosystem into the electron transfer chain
ATP forms in the ___ Stroma
H+ flows through ATP synthase, which attaches a phosphate group to ___ ATP
Electron energy is used to build up a ___ H+ gradient across the membrane
When NADPH accumulates in the stroma ___ The non-cyclic pathway stops
A cyclic pathway runs in ___ Type I photosystems to make ATP electrons are cycled back to phostosystem I and NADPH does not form
Photophosphorylation A light-driven reaction that attached a phosphate group to a molecule
Cyclic Photophosphorylation Electrons cycle with photosystem I
Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation Electrons move from water to photosystem II, to photosystem I, to NADPH
The "Synthesis" Part of Photosynthesis The cyclic, light-dependent reactions of the Calvin-Benson cycle
Calvin-Benson Cycle Enzyme-mediated reactions that build sugars in the storm of chloroplasts; Rubisco attaches CO2 to RuBP, PGAL, is formed, RuBP is regenerated
Carbon Fixation Extraction of carbon atoms from inorganic sources (atmosphere) and incorporating them into an organic molecule; Builds glucose from O2; Uses bond energy of molecules formed in light-dependent reactions (ATP, NADPH)
Rubisco Enzyme that attached CO2 and RuBP; Forms two 3-carbon PGA molecules; Most common enzyme
PGAs receive a ___ Phosphate group from ATP, and hydrogen and electrons from NADPH; Two PGAL combine to form a 6-carbon sugar
Stomata Small openings through the waxy cuticle covering epidermal surfaces of leaves and green stems; Allows CO2 in and O2 out; Close on dry days to minimize water loss
Created by: jyarbrough3