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Ch 2 Vocab

Chapter 2 Vocabulary for Biotech 1

TermDefinition
Fluorometer An instrument that measures the amount or type of light emitted
Organism A living thing
Cell The smallest unit of life that makes up all living organisms
Escherichia coli A bacterium that is commonly used by biotechnology companies for the development of products
Multicellular composed or more than 1 cell
Cytology Cell biology
Anatomy The structure and organization of living things
Physiology The processes and functions of living things
Respiration The breaking down of food molecules with the result of generating energy for the cell
Unicellular Composed of one cell
Tissue A group of cells that function together
Organ Tissues that act together to form a specific function in an organism
Proteins One of the four classes of macromolecules; folded, functional polypeptides that conduct various functions within and around a cell
Eukaryotic/Eukaryote A cell that contains membrane bound organelles.
Protist An organism belonging to the kingdom Protista, which includes protozoans, slime molds, and certain algae
Organelles Specialized microscopic factories, each with specific jobs in the cell
Mitochondria The membrane-bound organelles that are responsible for generating cellular energy
Sugar A simple carbohydrate molecule composed of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen
Nucleic Acids A class of macromolecules that directs the synthesis of all other cellular molecules; often referred to as "information-carrying molecules"
Lipids One of the four classes of macromolecules; includes fats, waxes, steroids, and oils
Pancreas An organ that secretes digestive fluids, as well as insulin
Hormone A molecule that acts to regulate cellular functions
Chlorophyll The green-pigmented molecules found in plant cells; used for photosynthesis
Photosynthesis A process by which plants or algae use light energy to make chemical energy
Chloroplast The specialized organelle in plants responsible for photosynthesis
Cytoplasm A gel-like liquid made of thousands of molecules suspended in water, outside the nucleus
Lysosome A membrane-bound organelle that is responsible for the breakdown of cellular waste
Ribosome The organelle in a cell where proteins are made
Cell Wall A specialized organelle surrounding the cells of plants, bacteria, and some fungi; gives support around the outer boundary of the cell
Cellulose A structural polysaccharide that is found in plant cell walls
Plasma Membrane A specialized organelle of the cell that regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell
Glucose A 6-carbon sugar that is produced during photosynthesis reactions; usual form of carbohydrate used by animals, including humans
Adenosine Triphosphate A nucleotide that serves as an energy storage molecule
Nucleus A membrane-bound organelle that encloses the cell's DNA
Chromosomes The long strands of DNA intertwined with protein molecules
Enzyme A protein that functions to speed up chemical reactions
Pigments The molecules that are colored due to the reflection of light of specific wave lengths
Messenger RNA A class of RNA molecules responsible for transferring genetic information from the chromosomes to ribosomes where proteins are made; often abbreviated mRNA
Amino Acids The subunits of proteins; each contains a central carbon atom attached to an amino group , a carboxyl group, and a distinctive "R" group
Polypeptide A strand of amino acids connected to each other through peptide bonds
Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells An animal cell live commonly used in biotechnology studies
Vero Cells African green monkey kidney epithelial cells
HeLa Cells Human epithelial cells
Prokaryotic/Prokaryote A cell that lacks membrane-bound organelles
Aerobic Respiration Utilizing oxygen to release the energy from sugar molecules
Anaerobic Respiration Releasing the energy from sugar molecules in the absence of oxygen
Macromolecule A large molecule usually composed of smaller repeating units chained together
Organic Molecules that contain carbon and are only produced by living things
Carbohydrates One of the four classes of macromolecules; organic compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, generally in a 1:2:1 ratio
Cytoskeleton A protein network in the cytoplasm that gives the cell structural support
Monomers The repeating units that make up polymers
Polymer A large molecule made up of many repeating sub units
Monosaccharide The monomer unit that cells use to build polysaccharides; also known as "single sugar" or "simple sugar"
Disaccharide A polymer that consists of two sugar molecules
Polysaccharide A long polymer composed of many simple sugar monomers
Fructose A 6-Carbon sugar found in high concentration in fruits; also called fruit sugar
Sucrose A disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose; also called table sugar
Lactose A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; also called milk sugar
Amylose A plant starch with unbranched glucose chains
Amylopectin A plant starch with branched glucose chains
Glycogen An animal starch with branched glucose chains
Cellular Respiration The process by which cells break down glucose to create other energy molecules
Deoxyribose The 5-Carbon sugar found in DNA molecules
Ribose The 5-Carbon sugar found in RNA molecules
Hydrophobic Repelled by water
Triglycerides A group of lipids that includes animal fats and plant oils
Phospholipids A class of lipids that are primarily found in membranes of the cell
Hydrophilic Having an attraction to water
Steroids A group of lipids whose functions include acting as hormones, venoms, and pigments
R Group The chemical side-group on an amino acids; in nature, there are 20 different R groups that are found in amino acids
Ribonucleic Acid The macromolecule that functions in the conversion of genetic instructions (DNA) into proteins
Nucleotides The monomer subunits of nucleic acids
Created by: Wallaby