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Gr 8 Science Cells

Chapter 1 Unit A: Cells

What does the "M" is Mr. Green represent? MOVEMENT: The ability of an organism to bend and sway or relocate
What does the "R" in Mr. Green represent? REPRODUCTION: The ability to reproduce and pass on its traits
What does the "G" in Mr. Green represent? GROWTH: The ability to increase in size through cell growth or cell division
What does the "R" in Mr. Green represent? RESPONSE: The ability to react to stimulus
What does the "E" in Mr. Green represent? EXCRETION: The ability to get rid of waste
What does the second "E" in Mr. Green represent? EXCHANGE OF GASES: In Animals: the ability to take in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. In Plants: the ability to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen
What does the "N" in Mr. Green represent? NUTRITION: The ability to acquire and process foods/nutrients
What is the first key idea in Cell Theory? The cell is the basic unit of life. The cell is the smallest living organism that shows the characteristics of living things.
What is the second key idea in Cell Theory? An organism can be as simple as one cell (unicellular) like a paramecium, or it can be made up of trillions of cells (multicellular), like an elephant.
What is the third key idea in Cell Theory? All cells are created from existing cells through a process called CELL DIVISION by which a cell divides into two new cells
What is Diffusion? The movement of particles from an area where there are many of them (a higher concentration) to an adjoining area where there are few of them (lower concentration). Diffusion continues until both areas have the same number (concentration) of particles.
Examples of Diffusion 1-Tea bag in boiling water. 2- aroma of food from kitchen (everything you can smell is because of diffusion) 3- the smoke from a fire moves through the air by diffusion, dispersing its particles evenly throughout the air.
How are diffusion and oxygen related? diffusion is how resources like oxygen are transported into a cell through its selectively permeable membrane. When the concentration of O2 is lower inside a cell than it is outside, oxygen diffuses into the cell, where it is used by the mitochondria
What is a Selectively Permeable Membrane? Outer boundary of a cell that only allows certain substances to pass through it.
What is the Mitochondria? Powerhouse of the cell. They break down food particles and release stored energy, uses this energy to fuel all of it's activities.
What is Osmosis? A special kind of diffusion that involves only the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane. Simply put, the movement of water into and out of cells
Why is Osmosis so important to a cells' survival? The concentration of water inside a cell must stay fairly consistent, therefore water diffuses into and out of cells continuously.
How does the process of Osmosis work in a cell If the concentration of water particles inside the cell is higher than it is outside of the cell, water will move out of the cell by osmosis. If the concentration of water particles outside the cell is higher, the water particles will move into the cell.
Examples of Osmosis PLANTS: Osmosis is involved in giving plants the rigidity they need to reach up for sunlight. If a plant is dry it would droop as the concentration of water particles inside the cell dropped. No water in the soil= no water to move into the cells
What is cellular transport? Movement of substances into and out of a cell (diffusion and osmosis are two types of cellular transport.
What is a cell? Basic structural unit of an organism and the building block of life.
This is the lens that magnifies the specimen, usually by 10x. This is the lens you look into EYEPIECE OR OCULAR LENS
This knob moves the stage up or down to focus on the specimen. This is the first knob you use to focus on a specimen COARSE ADJUSTMENT KNOB
Use this lens to sharpen an image under low and medium power. It is the only adjustment knob needed with the high power lens FINE ADJUSTMENT KNOB
This is where the objective lenses are mounted. Rotate the lens to select low, medium or high power lenses REVOLVING NOSEPIECE
There are three lenses that magnify the specimen: low power (4x), medium power (10x) and high power (40x). Keep the lenses free of dirt and fingerprints OBJECTIVE LENSES
This is where you place a slide for observation. Should be kept dry STAGE
These are used to hold a slide in position on the stage STAGE CLIPS
This has different sized holes that let different amounts of light pass through the specimen on the stage DIAPHRAGM
Supplies the light that passes trough the specimen on the stage. Used in place of a mirror to collect and direct light LAMP
Holds the tube in place and is used to carry the microscope ARM
Provides a stable platform for the microscope. (always set it on a flat, dry, uncluttered surface BASE
Separates the ocular lens from the objective lenses at a distance calculated for proper magnification TUBE
This is under the stage. It helps focus light onto the specimen on top of the stage CONDENSER LENS
Characteristics of a Compound Light Microscope Commonly binocular Uses light that is focussed through several different lenses to make a magnified view on your specimen
Pros and Cons of Compound Light Microscope PRO: inexpensive. Popular for studying plant cells in biology CON: can only magnify 500x-1000x unable to see details inside organelles such as nucleus and mitochondria
Characteristics of Stereo Microscope Two separate optical pathways that allow you to view your specimen in 3D
Pros and Cons of Stereo Microscope PRO: allows students to view photosynthesis in action CON: magnify at low powers typically 10x to 200x
Pros and Cons of the Transmission Electron Microscope PRO: Transmission Electron Microscopes with magnifications greater than 10 000X you can see details inside organelles that other microscopes can't PRO: helped make lots of scientific breakthroughs CON: the cost can be hundreds of thousands of dollars
Pros of the Digital Microscope Amazing detail Does not need an eyepiece lens because it used a computer screen Very clear and easy for multiple people to see Uses the power of the computer You can email images and watch moving images for long periods
Cons of the Digital Microscope need for a power connection
Created by: cianieri