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BIOL 114

Ch 9: Patterns of Inheritance

ABO blood groups Genetically determined classes of human blood that are based on the presence or absence of carbohydrates A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The ABO blood group phenotypes, also called blood types, are A, B, AB, and O.
achondroplasia A form of human dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele. The homozygous condition is lethal.
alleles An alternative version of a gene.
Carrier An individual who is heterozygous for a recessively inherited disorder and who therefore does not show symptoms of that disorder.
character A heritable feature that varies among individuals within a population, such as flower color in pea plants.
chromosome theory of inheritance A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns.
codominance The expression of two different alleles of a gene in a heterozygote.
dihybrid cross A mating of individuals differing at two genetic loci.
dominant allele In a heterozygote, the allele that determines the phenotype with respect to a particular gene.
F1 generation The offspring of two parental (P. generation) individuals. F1 stands for first filial.
F2 generation The offspring of the F1 generation. F2 stands for second filial.
Genetics The scientific study of heredity (inheritance).
genotype The genetic makeup of an organism.
Hemophilia A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele and characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.
Heredity The transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
heterozygous Having two different alleles for a given gene.
homozygous Having two identical alleles for a given gene.
Huntington's disease A human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele; characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nervous system; usually fatal 10 to 20 years after the onset of symptoms.
hybrids The offspring of parents of two different species or of two different varieties of one species; the offspring of two parents that differ in one or more inherited traits; an individual that is heterozygous for one or more pairs of genes.
hypercholesterolemia An inherited human disease characterized by an excessively high level of cholesterol in the blood.
incomplete dominance A type of inheritance in which the phenotype of a heterozygote (Aa) is intermediate between the phenotypes of the two types of homozygotes (AA and aa).
law of independent assortment A general rule of inheritance, first proposed by Gregor Mendel, that states that when gametes form during meiosis, each pair of alleles for a particular character segregate (separate) independently of each other pair.
law of segregation A general rule of inheritance, first proposed by Gregor Mendel, that states that the two alleles in a pair segregate (separate) into different gametes during meiosis.
linkage map A map of a chromosome showing the relative positions of genes.
linked genes Genes located close enough together on a chromosome that they are usually inherited together.
locus The particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome. Homologous chromosomes have corresponding gene loci.
monohybrid cross A mating of individuals differing at one genetic locus.
P generation The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance. P stands for parental.
pedigree A family tree representing the occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offspring across a number of generations.
phenotype The expressed traits of an organism.
pleiotropy The control of more than one phenotypic character by a single gene.
polygenic inheritance The additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic characteristic.
Punnett square A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.
recessive allele In heterozygotes, the allele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotype.
recombination frequency With respect to two given genes, the number of recombinant progeny from a mating divided by the total number of progeny. Recombinant progeny carry combinations of alleles different from that seen in either of the parents as a result of independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over
Red-green colorblindness A category of common sex-linked human disorders involving several genes on the X chromosome and characterized by a malfunction of light-sensitive cells in the eyes; affects mostly males but also homozygous females.
rule of multiplication A rule stating that the probability of a compound event is the product of the separate probabilities of the independent events.
sex-linked gene A gene located on a sex chromosome.
sickle-cell disease A genetic disorder in which the red blood cells have abnormal hemoglobin molecules and take on an abnormal shape.
testcross The mating between an individual of unknown genotype for a particular character and an individual that is homozygous recessive for that same character.
trait A variant of a character found within a population, such as purple flowers in pea plants.
true-breeding Referring to organisms for which sexual reproduction produces offspring with inherited traits identical to those of the parents. The organisms are homozygous for the characteristics under consideration.
wild-type trait The trait most commonly found in nature.
Created by: EdL