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7th Unit 3 Vocab

vocabulary from unit 3

amino acids form chains to make proteins; building blocks of proteins
blueprint a detailed plan
gene a section of DNA on a chromosome that gives instructions for making a specific protein
nitrogen base chemical compound that serves as a building block of DNA; adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
nucleic acid a biological molecule necessary for life on earth
proteins determine an organism’s characteristics; formed in ribosomes from instructions in genes
replicate reproduce; copy
allele a form or expression of a genetic trait
breeding the producing of offspring (plants and animals)
dominant a trait that will always appear when present with an allele for the recessive trait
generation offspring of parents; part of a line of descent
genetics the study of inheritance of traits
heredity the transmission of genetic traits from parents to offspring
hybrid an offspring that receives different genetic alleles, or genetic information, for a trait from each parent
pollinate to transfer pollen to the stigma of a flower
purebred an organism that has expressed the same traits for many generations
recessive the allele whose effect is hidden
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
heterozygous the alleles for a trait are different
homozygous both alleles for a trait are the same (dominant or recessive)
phenotype the trait of the allele that is actually expressed
Punnett square a grid used in genetics to show the possible outcomes of genetic crosses and to predict the probability that the offspring will express certain traits
codominance two alleles in a pair are equal, but instead of one dominating the other, both alleles show up at once
incomplete dominance instead of one allele dominating the other in a gene, the alleles combine or blend to produce a trait that is a combination of the two
multiple gene inheritance several genes in a chromosome work together to give an individual a certain trait
asexual reproduction requires only one parent organism for reproduction, and the organism reproduces by means of mitotic cell divisions; produces uniform offspring
budding a tiny bud can grow from the body of the organism until it becomes large enough to break off and become a separate organism
diploid having chromosomes arranged in complementary pairs
diverse offspring no two offspring are alike
egg female sex cell
fertilized the egg is capable of developing because it has united with the sperm cell
gamete a human sex cell, such as egg and sperm
genus the division below family in the classification of organisms, usually consisting of more than one species
haploid having a single set of chromosomes
regeneration occurs when organisms grow new body parts to replace lost or damaged ones; can be used to grow new organisms
sexual reproduction requires a male and female; each parent donates half the number of chromosomes needed to make a new life; produces diverse offspring
sperm male sex cell
uniform offspring offspring are identical to the parent
zygote cell produced by the union of egg and sperm
applied genetics the use of genetic science in everyday life
cloning the act of producing an exact copy of the parent, instead of creating a unique child
crossbreeding the breeding of two different breeds of the same species; the new plant or animal becomes a crossbreed
gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene into a virus, which infects an organism’s cells, and the normal gene replaces the organism’s defective gene
genetic engineering genes can be removed or added to an organism in order to produce or prevent certain traits
genome the complete set of an organism’s genes
inbreeding the breeding of an organism with another organism in its genetic family
selective breeding the process of breeding plants and animals for particular traits
natural selection takes place as organisms respond to their environment; as the conditions change, the species with the traits best suited for those changes are able to survive
chromosomal mutation a mutation that involves a change to an entire chromosome in a cell; an added, deleted, or rearranged chromosome
gene mutation a mutation that changes the arrangement of nitrogen bases in a gene
germ cell mutation mutation that takes place in the reproductive cells, also called gametes or germ cells; can then be copied and inherited by the offspring of the parent
mutation a change in an organism’s genes and/or chromosomes
somatic cell mutation mutation that happens in regular body cells; can change traits in that particular organism, but will not change the offspring
critical thinking thinking that involves analyzing and carefully considering the information and evidence presented using logical reasoning and clear, disciplined thinking habits
Created by: Hillerywest