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COGOPO Vocab Quiz

QuestionAnswer
A system of government in which leaders are not put in power by free elections Authoritarian
A system of government in which the legislative branch is divided into two chambers, an upper and a lower house Bicameral
A type of administration characterized by specialization, professionalism, and security of tenure Bureaucracy
A system of government in which power is divided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches which check and balance each other Checks and Balances
Protect individuals from government infringement, like free speech (Protects freedom) Civil Liberties
Protections granted by the government to prevent discrimination against groups, like ethnic, religious minorities, and women. (Protects equality) Civil Rights
Society considered as a community of citizens linked by common interests and collective activity unconnected to the state Civil Society
The division of voters into voting blocs/political division among political issues Cleavage
A political ideology characterized by a belief in eliminating exploitation through public ownership and central planning of the economy. Communism
A federal system of government in which sovereign constituent governments create a central government while a balance of power remains Confederation
The introduction of a democratic system or democratic principles (Authoritarian to Illiberal Democracy to Liberal Democracy) Democratization
System of government in which the sovereign central government gives some of its power to regional governments Devolution
A system of government based on public decisions made by citizens meeting on an assembly or voting by ballot Direct Democracy
A small group of elected officials who direct the policy process, and oversee the vast array of departments and agencies of government. Executive Branch
An extreme form of nationalism that plays on fears of communism and rejected individual freedom, liberal individualism, democracy, and state limitations Fascism
A system of government in which sovereignty is divided between a central government and several provinical or state governments Federalism
The governing body of a nation, state, or community Government
The person in effective charge of the executive branch of government Head of government
An individual who represents the state but doesn't exercise much political power. (May control international affairs, Commander in Chief) Head of State
Elections take place, but due to lack of civil liberties, citizens don't have knowledge about the actions/power of government. Illiberal Democracy
A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force Imperialism
A system of government in which the people control the government through elected political officials Indirect democracy
The power of the courts to declare legislation unconstitutional Judicial Review
The branch of government with the power to resolve legal conflicts that arise between citizens, government, or levels of government Judicial Branch
The branch of government responsible for making laws for society Legislative Branch
A system of government characterized by universal adult suffrage, political equality, majority rule, and constitutionalism. Emphasizes competition, participation, and liberty. Liberal Democracy
Individuals with a shared identity which creates a psychological bond and a political community Nation
State with a single, predominant national identity Nation-State
The transfer of a major branch of industry or commerce from private to state ownership or control Nationalization
A system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually/collectively responsible Parliamentary System
A mutual arrangement between a person that has authority, social status, wealth, or some other personal resource and another who benefits from their support/influence Patron-Client System
Attitudes, values, beliefs, and orientations that individuals in a society hold regarding their political system Political culture
The citizen's faith and trust in their government and their belief that they can understand and influence political affairs Political Efficacy
The struggle of any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group Politics
The ability to exercise one's will over others Power
A system of government where an executive branch is led by a president, elected by the public, who serves as both head of state and government. Presidential system
An elected president AND a legislatively chosen prime minister Semi-Presidential System
The sale of government-owned assets or activities to the private sector Privatization
A decision on policy proposals by a direct vote of the electorate Referendum
A system of government, especially an authoritarian one, that has not changed even though there have been different leaders Regime
A state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives Republic
Belief that all actions, of individuals and governments, are subject to an institutionalized set of rules and regulations Rule of Law
A leftist political ideology that emphasizes equality and prescribes a large role for government intervention. Supports private property Socialism
The split of responsibilities and influence between executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government Separation of Powers
Supreme power of authority, the ability of a government to rule without internal or external influence Sovereignty
When large businesses and labor unions are brought into the policy making process. This limits pluralism because small actors are left out. Corporatism
Combination of people, territory, and sovereign government State
A system of government in which priests rule in the name of a/the god(s) Theocracy
A government that seeks to use power to transform the total institutional fabric of a country to meet an ideological goal. Totalitarianism
When the government buys off its critics Cooptation
Unicameral
A system of government in which a single sovereign government rules the country Unitary system
A system of government with both democratic and authoritarian elements Hybrid Regime
Organizations or activities that are self perpetuation and valued for their own sake Institutions
The people's belief that the government has the right to rule Legitimacy
Based on a fair and understandable system of laws that are followed and apply to everyone Rational/Legal Legitimacy
Belief that something is the way it should be because it has always been that way Traditional Legitimacy
Belief in a government based on the ruler's engaging personality Charismatic Legitimacy
The increasing interconnectedness of the world Globalization
An ideology that seeks to unite religion with the state Fundamentalism
When many groups compete in policy making Pluralism
How people get into office Elections
Awards one seat to the candidate with the most votes in a district Single-Member District
Awards seats to political parties based on the percentage of votes received; there may be a threshold for getting seats Proportional Representation
Uses elements of both single-member and proportional representation Mixed electoral system
Citizens put measures before the citizenry for a vote (signatures) Initiative
Court decisions are written down and serve as precedents for future cases (Concrete Review) Common Law System
Based on rules written by the legislature Code Law System
Able to manage state affairs with little internal or external conflict Strong State
Cannot execute tasks very well, rules are haphazardly applied, and public noncompliance is widespread Weak State
A forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system Revolution
A change in leader brought about by a small group, often a military leader Coup
Power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants without hindrance or restraint, especially from the government Freedom
A material standard of living shared by the collective within a community, society, or country Equality
A cohesive set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and the ROLE OF GOVERNMENT Political Ideology
The process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions Political Socialization
Describe views regarding the necessary pace and scope of change in the balance between freedom and equality Political attitude
Thinks the government has changed too much and that it should revert to a government of the past (Sometimes ideological government of past) Reactionary
Thinks that things should change, but in a very slow way. Cautious of change. Conservatives
Thinks change needs to happen slowly over time Liberals
Wants to change very quickly, and replace the government because it doesn't work Radicals
Governance belief that is based on who rules and who benefits form the rule Aristotle's classification of government
Ability of state to wield power independently of internal or external conflict Autonomy
Ability of state to wield power in order to carry out the basic tasks of providing security and reconciling freedom and equality Capacity
Person's identification with racial or ethnic group Ethnic Identity
Institution that binds people together through common political aspirations National Identity
Binds people to the state Culture
Belief that a group of people has its own unique destiny, often including a desire for a separate state Nationalism
Pride in one's country, to the point where people defend and promote it Patriotism
Characteristics that cause political division in a society Political Cleavage
Different kinds of groups together, strengthening society Cross Cutting Cleavages
A division that strengthens feels of difference and discrepancy, weakening society Coinciding Cleavages
Class awareness which has declined in industrial and post-industrial society, but is a growing factor in the US Social Class
One of most explosive cleavages, which leads to civil wars. Ethnic Cleavage
Differing political values and attitudes often characterizing people living in different geographical regions Regional Cleavage
Measure of the relationship between two variables Correlation
When change in one variable causes a change in another variable Causation
Emphasis on describing political systems and their various institutions Traditional Approach
Shift from descriptive study to one that emphasizes causality, explanation, and prediction. Emphasis on individual political behavior over larger political structures. Behavioral Revolution
As societies develop, they become capitalist democracies Modernization Theory
Study through an in-depth investigation of a limited number of cases Qualitative Method
Study through statistical data from many cases Quantitative Method
Refers to the interaction of political and economic forms within a nation Political Economy
Amount of goods available Supply
Consumer willingness and ability to buy products Demand
Amount customers pay for products and services Price
Interactions between supply and demand Market
Ownership of goods and services Property
General increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money Inflation
Decrease in the general level of prices Deflation
Combination of inflation and recession, usually resulting from a supply shock Stagflation
Very rapid rise in the price level Hyperinflation
Reduced output, employment, investment, and confidence Recession
Extreme recession Depression
Increased output, employment, investment, and confidence Recovery
Require countries to increase taxes and cut spending (Austerity measures) to improve budgets Structural Adjustment Programs
Goods or services owned and provided by the state that are available to society and are indivisible (Roads, national defense, health care, and education) Public Goods
State provision of public benefits, such as education, health care, and transportation. Social Expenditures
Government provides support to citizens, such as unemployment enefits and health care Welfare State
Economic Systems in which individuals own and operate businesses, like capitalism Market economies
The government makes decisions regarding wages, prices, and production, and private property is limited, like communism Command Economies
Combines features of both market and command economies Mixed economy
Derive a significant portion of their revenues from rent Rentier State
societies in which basic needs are met and citizens can concentrate on higher goals, like the environment Post-Materialism
Belief that colonization leaves a legacy of poverty and poor governance Dependency Theory
Move to a free market by reducing tariffs, trade barriers, and government control over the economy Economic Liberalization
Measure which accounts for life expectancy, birth and death rates, education, quality of life, and wealth HDI
Total value of goods and services produced in country GDP
GDP divided by the population GDP per capita
Takes cost of living and buying power into account when determining GDP PPP (Purchasing Power Parity)
Measures Income Inequality Gini Index
High GDP per capita and High HDI; Service based economies Developed Countries
Emerging economies based on production Developing Country
Low GDP per capita and high HDI; Agricultural Underdeveloped Country
Poorest of the poor Least Developed Country
Created by: Kittentms