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What are the two characteristics of evolution? 1. Incredible diversity of life forms. 2. Lifeforms show great structural complexity and adaptations to the environment.
What was James Ussher's contribution to evolution? 1. The bible was the only true record and reflected the chronology of life. 2. Using biblical information he calculated the date of creation to be 22nd Oct.,4004 BC.
What evidence is there to disprove James Ussher's calculated date of creation? 1. Geology and sedimentary rocks show Earth is older. 2. Fossil discoveries show extinctions have occurred.
How do sedimentary rocks show that the earth is older than what James Ussher calculated? Land that is now dry was once under water.
On which perspectives do Medieval and Modern differ? Date of creation, time taken for Creation, purpose of creation, Forces of nature, role of man, underlying force behind biodiversity, miracles vs. Science.
What was the date of creation calculated by James Ussher? 22 October, 4004BC
How does the modern and medieval perspective differ on Date of Creations? Medieval - 22 October 4004BC Modern - 3.5 Billion years ago
According to modern perspective, about how long ago did modern Man first appear? About 150,000 years ago.
How does the modern and medieval perspective differ on time taken for creation? Medieval - 6 days Modern - Earth is as a result of constant change.
How does the modern and medieval perspective differ on Forces of Nature? Medieval- Forces if Nature are not Creative Modern - forces of nature can be creative or destructive.
According to the Modern Perspective on evolution, how can forces be creative? speciation.
According to modern perspective on evolution, how can natural forces be destructive? Extinction.
How does the modern and medieval perspective differ on extinction of species. Medieval - species are fixed entities and therefore cannot become extinct. Modern - species are not fixes entities and change happens very slowly.
How does the modern and medieval perspective differ on purpose of creation? Medieval - supernatural intervention Modern - nature is unaided, no divine intervention, no master plan.
How does the modern and medieval perspective differ on miracles vs science? Medieval-creation is a miracle Modern- miracles are unscientific and no progress can be made if blindly accepted.
What does the medieval view on evolution mean by supernatural intervention? Every creature has a role (purpose) in God's plan which explains the very complex forms and evidence for adaption.
What does the medieval view in evolution mean by creation is a miracle? It is an unnatural event serving the purpose of a divine force.
How does the modern and medieval perspective differ on the role of man? Medieval- man is the last creation and only being with a soul therefore he is at the top of hierarchy and above nature Modern- man is simply one more member of nature.
How does the modern and medieval perspective differ on the underlying force behind biodiversity? Medieval- benevolence and wisdom of God Modern- natural selection resulting in survival of the fittest which is a universal struggle for existence.
What was Carolus Linnaeus' contribution to the Evolution theory? He developed the binomial classification of species, genus & species. Plant hybrids were created through cross pollination.
What did Carolus Linnaeus base his classification on? Detailed observation of specimen.
What did Carolus Linnaeus' developed system imply? Each species is a distinct archetype and reflection of God's intent.
What was Carrolus Linnaeus' conclusion? God created one specie in each genus and new species came about through hybridization.
What was the name given to Carolus Linnaeus' conclusion? The fixed species concept.
What was Compte de Buffon's contribution to the evolution theory? Animals change over time and change accumulates over generations due to climatic conditions, reversibility and all life descended from a single ancestor.
What would reversibility mean? If local conditions changed, the animal would revert to more primitive or original form.
What was Jean-Baptiste Lamark's 1st contribution? Organisms have a natural tendency to become more complex, evolving from preexisting, less complex organisms.
What was Jean-Baptiste Lamark's 2nd contribution? Progressive adaptation to local environment occurs through use and disuse of organs.
What was Jean-Baptiste Lamark's 3rd contribution? The results of an individual's efforts are inherited by offspring resulting in appearance of different forms over time and is driven by inner need.
What are the first aspect of the Wallace-Darwin Theory? 1. Individuals in a population have variable levels of agility,size,ability to obtain food and different successes in reproducing.
What is the 2nd aspect of the Wallace-Darwin Theory? Left unchecked,populations tend to expand exponentially,leading to scarcity of resources.
What is the 3rd aspect of The Wallace-Darwin Theory? In the struggle for existence some individuals are more successful than others, allowing them to survive and reproduce.
What is the 4th aspect of the Wallace-Darwin Theory? Those organisms best able to survive and reproduce will leave more offspring than those unsuccessful individuals.
What is the last aspect of the Wallace-Darwin Theory? Overtime there will be heritable changes in phenotype and genotype of a species, resulting in a transformation of the original species into a new species similar to but different from parent spp
Define Natural Selection. The process by which organisms better adapted to their environment will survive and produce more offspring.
How did Charles Darwin investigate Natural Selection? 1.Galapagos islands which contains fauna different from the mainland. 2.Identified 13 species of finches with different beak shapes and varieties based on diet. Mainland had 1 specie.
What is the first aspect of evolution through Natural Selection? All plant and animal population produce more offspring than needed to replace parent population.
What is the 2nd aspect of evolution through Natural Selection? Natural populations of each kind of organism tend to remain stable in size from generation to generation.
What is the 3rd aspect of evolution through Natural Selection? Food is finite therefore there is a struggle to survive due to increased competition because more young which are able to survive are produced.
What is the 4th aspect of evolution through Natural Selection? Individuals with traits to better use the environment are likely to do better and reproduce more.
What is micro-evolution? Micro-evolution is the change within a species or small population over a short period of time.
What is macroevolution? Major changes withing large economic groups over period of time.
Who were the three main contributors to determine how traits were inherited? Charles Darwin, August Weizmann and Gregor Mendel.
How did Darwin say traits were inherited? He theorised pangenesis.
Define gemmules in pangenesis. Tiny particles shed by all cells in an organism.
Define pangenesis. Gemmules circulate throughout the entire body and congregate in gonads. During reproduction, the gemmules from each parent mix in the fetus to produce a new individual and transmit traits acquired by parents during their lifetime.
What would happen if parents cells underwent changes due to a change in the environment? The cells would transmit modified gemmules to the offspring.
What did August Weizmann theorize about how traits were inherited? The Germ Plasm Theory.
Define the Germ Plasm Theory. Multicellular organisms have somatic cells and only germ cells carry hereditary material to form new bodies.
What are somatic cells? Body cells and germ cells.
According to August Weizmann, What is the difference between body and germ cells? Body cells do not carry hereditary material but germ cells (which are not affected by what happens in the body) carry hereditary material.
What did Gregor Mendel contribute to how traits were inherited? Organisms have genes which code for traits and contains alleles which ate different forms of a gene.
How did Gregor Mendel conduct his investigation? By breeding tall and dwarf peas in an experiment.
What were the three laws that Gregor Mendel came up with? The law of Segregation, the Law of Independent Assortment and the Law of Dominance.
Define the Law of Segregation. Each individual has 2 alleles for each trait.During gamete formation,the allele pairs separate resulting in 1 allele being present in the cell.During fertilization,the offspring receives one allele from each parent.
Define the Law of Independent Assortment. Alleles for different traits are passed on independently of each other.
Define the law of Dominance. Recessive alleles will be masked by dominant alleles.
What are the key elements of the modern theory of Evolution? the process of evolution, gradualism common ancestry,speciation,natural selection, non-selective evolutionary forces.
Define the process of evolution. Genetic change occurring overtime within a population of organisms.
Define gradualism. Changes from generation to generation can be small but over many generations can lead to a fundamentally different organism.
Define common ancestry. All species share a common descent.
Define Speciation. One group of organisms evolve into two (of more) groups that can no longer interbreed.
Define non-selective evolutionary force Genetic changes from generation to generation which are not driven by natural selection.
Give an example of a non-selective force. Genetic drift.
Define genotype. The genetic sequence or genes carried by an individual
Define phenotype. The visible manifestation of a physical character.
What causes variability among individuals? Inherited differences and environmentally induced differences
Define gene pool. The sum of all genes within a population.
Define Diploid number. 2 copies of a gene (2n).
What is the operational definition of evolution? Change in allele frequency in a population over time.
What are the first 4 conditions of the hardy-weinberg equilibrium model? 1. Mutations are not occurring. 2. Natural selection is not occurring. 3. A population is infinitely large. 4. All members of the population is breeding and no predators are feedibg on them.
What are the last three conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model? 5. All mating is totally random 6. All members of the population produce the same number of offspring. 7. No migration in and out of population therefore no competition is present.
State the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium model. Evolution will not occur within a population if 7 conditions are met.
What is the main cause if genetic variability? Mutations
What is a mutation? A mistake which occurs at random in a cell's DNA which leads to abnormal protein production.
What are the two types of mutations? Gene mutations Chromosome mutations
What are gene mutations? Changes in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene
What are chromosome mutations? Rearrangenent or movement of genes in a chromosome.
What are the types of gene mutations? Point mutations and frame shift mutations.
What are point mutations? One DNA base is substited with another at a single location.
What are the two types of point mutation? Transition and transversion.
What is the difference between transition and transversion mutations? Transition involves the interchange of purines or pyrimidines whereas trans version involves the substitution of a purine with a pyrimidine or vice versa.
Define frame shift. The alteration of an entire reading frame of an RNA which codes for amino acids,therefore changing the protein produced.
What are the types of frame shift mutations? Insertion and deletion.
Define insertion mutation. A nucleotide base is added to the DNA strand.
Define deletion mutation. A nucleotide base is removed from DNA sequence.
Which of the two point mutations cause a more significant effect? Frame shift mutations.
What are the types of chromosome mutations? Duplication, deletion, inversion, translocation.
Define duplication. Extra copies of genes are generated, therefore an extra copy of the chromosome is generated.
Define deletion. Genetic material from a chromosome breaks off.
Define inversion. A broken chromosome segment gets inverted and placed back into the chromosome.
Define Translocation. A fragment of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.
What are the 3 fundamental modes of natural selection according to how they effect the population? Directional, stabilizing and disruptive selection.
Define directional selection The phenotype at one extreme of the population distribution has a selective advantage.
Define stabilizing selection. The intermediate phenotypes are advantageous.
Define disruptive selection. The intermediate phenotypes are at a disadvantage while the phenotypes at both extremes are advantageous.
Give an example of directional selection. The peppered moth.
Give an example of stabilizing selection. Mortality rates among newborns blooming periods in spring.
Define genetic drift. Changes in allele frequency due to chance.
what are the consequences of genetic drift? complete loss of an allele or increase in frequency of an allele, more possible for extinctions to occur, the population no longer represents original gene pool
State the forms of genetic drift founder effect and the bottle neck effect
Define the bottle neck effect a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events
Define the founder effect some members of a population move to a new uninhabited environment
define gene flow the transfer of alleles from one population to another usually through immigration or emigration
what factors affect the rate of gene flow?
what mechanisms affect the rate of gene flow? prezygotic and post zygotic mechanisms
what are the prezygotic mechanisms? geographic isolation, temporal isolation, ecological isolation, behavioural isolation, mechanical isolation and gametic isolation
How does geographic isolation affect gene flow? individuals cannot mate because they live in different areas
How does temporal isolation affect gene flow? individuals do not mate because they are active at different times of the day of different seasons
How does ecological isolation affect gene flow? individuals only mate in their preferred habitat and don't encounter species of different habitat preferences
How does behavioural isolation affect gene flow? individuals of different species may not recognise sexual cues as mating rituals may be different.therefore an individual attracts members of its own species
How does mechanical isolation affect gene flow? copulation may be attempted but transfer of sperm does not take place due to incompatibility of sex organs
How does gametic isolation affect gene flow? sperm transfer takes place but egg is not fertilised
what are the post zygotic mechanisms? Zygotic mortality, hybrid inviability, hybrid sterility, hybrid breakdown
Created by: Naomi20