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Chapter 5 Anatomy

Integumetary System (Skin)

What is the skin? Largest organ of the body
Integumentary System made up of what? Skin, hair, nails and glands.
Made up of 2 layers: Epidermis- top layer Dermis- bottom layer, dead cells
Hypodermis Not considered part of skin. Loose connective tissue to the facia (surface) of organs and bone, absorbs shock, and insulates. Women have more- childbirth White bloches-fat
Epidermis (5 layers): made up of 5 layers (bottom to top, produced in ectoderm): Stratum Basale, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Granulosm, Stratum Lucidum and Stratum Corneum.
Stratum Basale where mitosis occurs, contains 3 types of cells: keratinocytes (produce fibrous tissue), merkas cell (involved in sense reception), melanocytes (produces pigment, melanin)
Stratum Spinosum cells flatten and become attached to other cells, grow spiney like projections.
Stratum Germinativum first 2 layers combined
Stratum Granulosm cells contain granules called keratonyalin, increase in size and kill nucleus
Stratum Lucidum a clear band of cells containing eleidin, found in areas where skin is thick due to friction (callouses)
Stratum Corneum dead cells containing keratin (water repellant fibrous protein) which protects the body and limits water loss.
Dermis develops in the mesoderm, contains nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels, hair follicles and glands.
2 layers of dermis (top to bottom): Papillary layer-called this because of the many projections (papillae) which shows through the epidermis layer (finger prints) and contain sense receptors Reticular layer- bundles of collagenous fibers that interlock with the hypodermis
Reticular layer creates 3 types of lines on skin: capillary beds found here. Tension line- lines of cleavage, circular lines around neck, trunk and longitudinal lines on limbs. Flexure line- lines around wrists, palms and fingers. Striae- stretch marks
3 fibers found in collagen: connective- strength collagenous- limits water loss elastin- allows stretching of skin
3 ways of skin having color: melanin- produced melanocytes, no difference amount in the body, amount due to heritage carotene- callouses capillaries of dermis- (red) due to large amount of oxygenated hemoglobin in one area of the body (blue) due to absence of oxygenated hemoglobin
nourishment of skin cells get nourished from capillary beds (found in reticular layer) in the dermis while they are alive,
Derivatives of Skin (down growth): hair, nails, glands,
Hair (5 characteristics): connective tissue around it (holds hair follicle in place), hair follicle is embedded in epidermal and dermal layers, outer covering called the root sheeth, papillae poke through root sheeth for nourishment mitosis can occur, sebaceous glands secrete oil.
3 layers of hair: medulla- central core cortex- keratin and pigment cuticle- dead cells clinical- outer layer of hair (covering)
Goosebumps when cold or frightened, a smooth muscle called arrector pili that contracts to pull the hair perpendicular to the skin, this forms a buldge of skin in front of it.
Nails cornified cells from strata corneum and lucidum
5 structures of nail: nail bed- nails rest on them, lanula- (half moon) stratum germinativum thickened, nail matrix- thick stratum germinativum - mitosis, eponychium- skin folding over top of nail, hyponychium- skin folding under distal end of the nail
Glands of skin (2 types): sweat glands- sudoriferous glands (sudor-sweat). sebaceous glands-develop and secrete onto the hair follicle secrete sebum.
3 areas glands are NOT located: lips, nipples, and genital areas
3 types of sweat glands: eccrine-form of coiled tubule stimulated by sympathetic nerves, secretes salt, urea, sulfates and phosphates apocrine-secretes cytoplasm (fatty acid) and protein that produce BO (pheromone) ceruminous-produces wax in ears, keeps moisture out
5 functions of integumentary system (1 and 2) 1. protection-reduces water loss and physical barrier to UV light and germs (pH 4 to 6.8) 2. body temp regulation
5 funtions continued (3-5) 3. excretion-nitrogenous wastes and salt through sweat 4. sensations-receptors in papillary layer 5. vitamin d production-maintain levels of calcium and phosphate
Effects of aging skin: wrinkles, dryness- skin becomes less permeable, less fat in dermis, decrease in sebaceous and sudor glanbds, patchy skin (melanocytes die), sun makes effects show quicker.
athletes foot caused by fungus, found on soles of feet and between toes (isn't harmful until temp goes up)
warts caused by virus, mostly found in groups
pimples or boils caused by bacteria, most are harmless its a staphylococcus
acne caused by a bacteria due to over secretion of the sebaceous glands from high hormone levels
psoriasis cause is unknown, reddish/brown patches with scales
moles caused by steroid hormones, pigment elevations on the skin, most are benign, most people have an average of 20
herpes simplex-(fever blister or cold sore), caused by virus, is dormant in spinal nerve to the skin when immune system weakens zoster-(shingles or chicken pox) same as simplex
skin cancer (melanoma and basal cell cancer) due to over exposure to the sun basal cell- shiny bump, pink growth, doesn't heal easily squamous cell-deadly cancer, persistent bleeding, rapid growth bumps are telltale signs
burns 1st-epidermal layer is damaged (pain, redness and swelling) 2nd- damage to epidermis and dermis skin can still regenerate 3rd- no regeneration of skin to burned area
2 harmful effects of burns: loss of water and blood plasma, can lead to kidney malfunction, dehydration and shock micro-organisms will freely enter the body
2 ways to minimize scars and healing time: split skin graft-taking the epidermis and hair of the dermis from one area of the body and placing it over burn (burned area) artificial skin graft-made up of silicon collagen and polysaccharides.
Created by: elizabethpaisley



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