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Microbial Genetics

Ch 10: Microbial Genetics

QuestionAnswer
Bacteriocin one of a group of bacterial proteins toxic to other bacterial cells
Bacteriophage a virus that infects and replicates inside a bacterial cell
Biotechnology the commercial application of genetic engineering using living organisms
Conjugation the unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a live donor cell into a live recipient cell during a period of cell contact
Defective particle a virus particle that does not contain the complete set of viral genes needed for viral replication
DNA polymerase an enzyme that catalyzes DNA replication by combining complementary nucleotides to an existing strand
F factor a plasmid containing genes for plasmid replication and conjugation pilus formation
Genetic engineering the use of bacterial and microbial genetics to isolate, manipulate, recombine and express genes
Genetic recombination the process of bringing together different segments of DNA
Genome the complete set of genes in a virus or organism
Horizontal gene transfer the movement of genes from one organism to another within the same generation
Induced mutation a change in the sequence of nucleotide bases in a DNA molecule arising from a mutagenic agent used under controlled laboratory conditions
Mutagen a chemical or physical agent that causes a mutation
Mutation a change in the characteristic of an organism arising from a permanent alteration of a DNA sequence
Nucleoid the chromosomal region of a prokaryotic cell
Phenotype the physical appearance of an organism
Plasmid a small, closed loop molecule of DNA apart from the chromosome that replicates independently and carries nonessential genetic information
Point mutation the replacement of one base in a DNA strand with another base
Recombinant DNA molecule a DNA molecule containing DNA from two different sources
Replication fork the point where complementary strands of DNA separate and new complementary strands are synthesized
Restriction endonuclease a type of enzyme that splits open a DNA molecule at a specific restricted point
Semiconservative replication the DNA copying process where each parent (old) strand serves as a template for a new complementary strand
Spontaneous mutation a mutation that arises from natural phenomena in the environment
Sticky end the unpaired ends of a DNA fragment that has been cut with a restriction endonuclease
Transduction the transfer of a few bacterial genes from a donor cell to a recipient cell via a bacterial virus
Transformation the transfer and integration of DNA fragments from a dead and lysed donor cell to a recipient cell’s chromosome
Transposon a segment of DNA that moves from one site on a DNA molecule to another site
Created by: drmicro