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IB Biology 6.5

Neurons/nerve cells transmit information in the form of nerve impulses
The central nervous system is made up of the neurons of the brain and the spinal cord and receives information from sensory receptors all over the body
Peripheral nerves network of neurons that carry information to and from the central nervous system
Sensory neurons carry information to the central nervous system
Motor neurons transmit impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands that then cause a response
Relay neurons form connection between sensory and motor neuron
The cell body contains the nucleus and most of the cytoplasm of the cell
Small dendrites receive information from relay neurons and and transmit the impulses to the cell body
Myelin sheath has a high lipid content and forms an electrical insulation layer that speeds the transmission of impulses along the axon
How do neurons transmit information in the form of impulses
Impulses short-lived changes in electrical potential across the membrane of the neuron
What do all neurons contain? Sodium (NA+) and potassium (K+) ions
How do impulses occur? They occur as sodium and potassium ions move in and out through the plasma membrane
Resting potential the condition of a neuron when it´s not transmitting impulses
Action potential the reversal and restoration of the resting potential across the plasma membrane of a neuron as an electrical impulse passes along it
Depolarized membrane is when the distribution of charge across the membrane is reversed during a nerve impulse
Threshold potential is the electrical potential across the plasma membrane of a neuron that is required in order to trigger an action potential
Refractory period a period immediately following stimulation during which a nerve or muscle is unresponsive to further stimulation.
What does a larger diameter mean with regard to rate of conduction along an axon? Faster reduction
Nodes of Ranvier gaps in the myelin sheath of an axon where the membrane can initiate action potentials.
Saltatory conduction is when the myelin sheath prevents the flow of ions across the membrane so the current must jump from node to node which speeds up transmission of nerve impulse
Synapse is a place where two neurons meet
Synaptic cleft is the gap between two neurons (20nm)
Acetylcholine (ACh) binds to receptors and causes depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane and the initiation of an action potential
Nicotine is an excitatory drug and affects the post-synaptic membrane so that it transmits an action potential
Cocaine and amphetamines excitatory drugs which stimulate synaptic transmission
Cannabis and alcohol suppress the activity of the nervous system
Neonicotinoids chemical pesticides used in insects. They block the transmission at the synapses of insects by binding to acetylcholine receptors.
Created by: Wengel



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