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09 CAC Pharmacology

Chapter 15, The Paramedic by Will Chapleau

Study of Drugs Pharmacology
Study of how drugs are deliverd to and from affected organs. Pharmacokinetics
How readily or easily the drug is able to combine substances such as water or oil. Solubility
Study of how drugs interact with the living tissues in the body. Pharmacodynamics
4 Ways Drugs can act 1. Bind to a receptor site. 2 Change physical properties of the cell.3 Chemically combine with other chemicals. 4.Alter a normal metabolic pathway
A Substance added to a drug perparation to provide for or enhance delivery of the drug into body tissues Vehicle
Routes of Administration 1.Enteral-Orally2.Parenteral-IM,IV,IO,SC,SQ3.Topical.
Subroutes of Administration Ingestion.Injection.Absorbtion.Inhalation.
Process of handling medications that require the maintaining of sterility is.. Asepsis (Without germs or pathogens)
Progress from its pharmaceutical dosage form to a biologically available substance Drug Absorption
Factors that affect drug absorption Solubility.Concentration.pH. Site of absorption.Blood supply. Bioavailability
Solute vs Solvent Solute = Drug.Solvent = Liquid in which it is dissolved
Drug Forms Liquids.Solids.Suppositories.Inhalants.Sprays.Creams/lotions.Patches,Lozenges.
Factors that affect distribution Cardiovascular function.Regional blood flow.Drug storage reservoirs.Physiological barriers
2 Effects with Biotransformation 1.Transform the drug into a more or less active metabolite.2.Make the drug more water soluble for elimination
Passage of a drug through the liver and the renal (kidney) circulation resulting in chemical alterations and elimination of some of the drug from the body. First Pass Effect
Amount of drug available for the body to use following biotransformation and first pass events Bioavailability
2 Reasons why Bioavailability can be altered 1.Absorption is reduced.2 Elimination occurs prior to entering the systemic circulation.
5 Patient Rights 1.Patient.2.Drug.3.Dose.4.Route.5.Time.
Primary neurotransmitter for the Sympathetic Nervous System. Norepinephrine.Also Epinephrine and Dopamine
Neurotransmitter for the Parasympathetic Nervous System Acetylcholine
A drug that inhibits ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) which is important to the formation of angiotensin II. Lowers Blood Pressure ACE Inhibitors
Drugs that mimic the effects of the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathomimetic
Class of drug that blocks the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system. Parasympatholytic. Atropine...
Which type of receptor binding results in increased heart rate, force of contraction and conduction velocity Beta 1
Class of medication that prevents thrombi by interrupting the clotting cascade Anticoagulants
An untoward effect after adminstering succinylcholine for a Rapid Sequence Intubation procedure? Hypotension
Organophosphate Poisoning causes the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh), and profound parasympathetic effects. What class of drugs would be used to reverse these effects Anticholinergics
Proteins present on a cell membrane to which a drug must bind in order to elicit a desired respnose Drug Receptor
Power of a drug to produce a therapeutic effect Efficacy
Medications that stimulate the sympathetic system Sympatohmimetics
Medications that inhibit the sympathetic system Sympatholytics
Location where Sympathetic and Parasympathetic arises. Sympathetic - Thoraic, Lumbar.Parasympathetic - Brain Stem, Sacral segments.
Medications that block the actions of the parasympathetic system Parasympatholytics
Medications that stimulate the parasympathetic system Parasympathomimetics.
Results from stimulating the Parasympathetic system Pupil Constrction.Secretion by digestive glands.Increase Smooth Muscle activity.Bronchoconstriction.Reduce HR and contractile force.
Special Considerations in drug therapy 1.Geriatric.2.Peds.3 Pregos.
Enhancement of one agent by another so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of the effects of each one alone Potentiation
The gradual adaptation to a stimulus or to the environment, with a decreasing response. Habituation
-olol Beta Blockers
-pril ACE Inhibitors
-ipines Calcium Channel Blocker
Created by: SullenFF