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Advanced Biology 14

Character An observable heritable feature that may vary among individuals.
Trait One of two or more detectable variants in a genetic character.
P Generation The true-breeding (homozygous) parent individuals from which F1 hybrid offspring are derived in studies of inheritance.
F1 Generation The first filial, hybrid (heterozygous) offspring arising from a parental (P generation) cross.
F2 Generation The offspring resulting from interbreeding (or self-pollination) of the hybrid F1 generation.
Allele Any of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
Dominant Allele An allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote.
Recessive Allele An allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote.
Law of Segregation Mendel’s first law, stating that the two alleles in a pair segregate (separate from each other) into different gametes during gamete formation.
Homozygous Having two identical alleles for a given gene.
Heterozygous Having two different alleles for a given gene.
Phenotype The observable physical and physiological traits of an organism.
Genotype The genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism.
Monohybrid Cross A cross between two organisms that are heterozygous for the character being followed (or the self-pollination of a heterozygous plant).
Dihybrid Cross A cross between two organisms that are each heterozygous for both of the characters being followed (or the self-pollination of a plant that is heterozygous for both characters).
Law of Independent Assortment Mendel’s second law, stating that each pair of alleles segregates, or assorts, independently of each other pair during gamete formation.
Pedigree A diagram of a family tree with conventional symbols, showing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations.
Created by: Mr.Devine