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HND Immunology

Why are most antigen known as being multivalent? Because they have multiple epitopes.
What does the serum produced upon exposure to an antigen contain? Many different antibodies against many different epitopes.
Will each pairing between antibody and antigen have the same affinity? No, each pairing will have a different affinity.
Can individual affinities be measured in the antiserum? No, individual affinities can not be measured.
Define avidity. The total binding strength between the antiserum and antigen.
What is the relation between avidity and affinity? Avidity is always greater than the total sum of affinities.
What can be done with multi-valent antigens? They can be linked together by two or more antibody molecules.
What happens if one antibody dissociates from the multivalent antigen and antibody complex? The cross-linkage can be maintained by the remaining antibodies until another antibody replaces the dissociated one.
Why is avidity known as a dynamic situation? Because some antibodies are dissociating and others are re-associating all the time.
What is the linking of multi-valent antigens known as? Cross-linking.
What is cross-linking crucial for? The activation of B cells and the compliment system.
What is meant by valency? The maximum number of epitopes an immunoglobulin can react with.
What determines the valency of an immunoglobulin? The number of Fab regions present on the immunoglobulin.
What is the valency of IgG? 2.
What is the valency of IgD? 2.
What is the valency of IgE? 2.
What is the valency of IgA? 2 in its monomeric serum form. 4 in its dimeric secretory form.
What is the valency of IgM? 2 in its monomeric form as a B cell receptor. 10 in its pentameric free floating antibody form.
What leads to increased avidity? More antigen binding sites, which lead to more binds, meaning less dissociation and greater avidity.
Created by: MushetJ