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Immunology B/T cells

HND Immunology

What is innate immunity? The non-specific first line of defence, including external barriers.
What is adaptive immunity? Developed throughout life, it adapts to unseen molecules using cells such as B and T lymphocytes.
What are features of humoral immunity? B lymphocytes and free circulating antibodies.
What are features of cell mediated immunity? T lymphocytes, activated macrophages and cytokines.
What is passive immunity? Short term immunity given by antibodies passed from mother to child via the placenta or breatmilk.
Where are B lymphocytes produced? In bone marrow
Where are non circulating B cells found? In secondary lymphoid tissue, i.e. lymph nodes, spleen, and mocusa associated lymphoid tissue.
What is the primary function of B lymphocytes? Producing antibodies with unique specificity to antigens.
What is a B cell receptor? A unique antibody placed on the B cl surface.
How does a B cell bind to specific antigens? B cell receptor binds to a specific epitope on an antigen with a corresponding shape.
How many clones of the B lymphocyte exist? 10^7 to 10^9.
How many antigens does a B lymphocyte exist for? Every antigen, even those the body has not encountered.
How are naive B lymphocytes activated? Antigen binds to a B cell receptor. 2nd signal (Cb3) activates major histamine complex II (MHC-II). Antigen taken in via endocytosis as the B cell increases MHC-II production.
What happens after the antigen enters the B lymphocyte? Antigen is degraded by lysozyme to produce peptide epitopes. Peptide epitopes combine the MHC-II. Peptide epitope and MHC-II complex move to cell surface, activating the B cell which can interact with T cells.
What do B cells do once they interact with T cells? Undergo a form of miotic division known as clonal proliferation, in which they proliferate (rapidly divide) and differentiate (change from one cell form to another).
What cells do activated B cells become? Plasma cells and memory cells.
What are plasma cells? Short lives cells that produce and secrete large amounts of soluble antibodies but that don't express cell surface antibody receptors.
What are memory cells? Long lasting cells that don't produce soluble antibodies but do have cell surface receptors, they divide occasionally to maintain the pool of cells and respond quickly if the antigen is re-introduced.
What is a primary response? When B lymphocytes encounter antigen for first time there is a limited response due to there being only a few activated B cells (attained via innate immunity) corresponding to the antigen meaning that fewer antibodies will be produced.
What is the secondary response? A stronger, faster response to an already encountered antigen due to a pool of identical circulating memory cells, meaning many more antibodies can be produced. This forms the basis for vaccination.
Name the four classes of T cells? Cytotoxic T cells, Helper T cells, Suppressor T cells, Memory T cells.
What is the role of helper T cells? Recognises and binds to peptide and MHC-II complex via a molecule consisting of the T cell receptor and a CD4 molecule on the cell surface of the Th2 helper cell.
What happens when the correct helper T cell binds to an activated B cell? When the Th2 helper cell binds to an activated B cell, the Th2 cell releases cytokines.
What is the role of cytotoxic T cells? Causes lysis of infected or otherwise irreversibly damaged cells.
What is the role of suppressor T cells? To inhibit cytotoxic T cells.
What is the role of memory T cells? A long lived T cell that has already encountered an antigen and bears receptors to it, they can rapidly proliferate upon re-exposure.
What are cytokines? Low molecular weight soluble proteins that act as chemical messengers.
Name important cytokines. Interleukin 2, Interleukin 4, Interleukin 5 and interferon.
What do cytokines do to activated B cells? Stimulate their differentiation and proliferation, promote antibody production and enable switching of antibody class.
Created by: MushetJ



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