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FA Neuro Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
Schwann cells arise from what embryological cell layer? Neural crest
Microglia arise from what embyrological cell layer? Mesoderm
Oligodendrocyes arise from what embryological cell layer? Neuro-ectoderm
What is the marker for Astrocytes? GFAP
What cell mantains the blood-brain barrier? Astrocytes
Multinucleated giant cells in CNS are formed by what cells? HIV-infected mmicroglia
What cell in Nissl stains as small nuclei with dark chromatin and little cytoplasm? Oligodendrocyte
What cell look like fried eggs on H and E staining? Oligodendrocytes
Oligodendrocytes are derived from what embryological cell layer? Neuro-ectoderm
What is the receptor type for pain and temperature? Free nerve endings
What is the receptor type for dynamic fine touch? Meissner's corpuscles
What is the receptor type for vibration and pressure? Pacinian corpuscles
What is the receptor type for static touch? Merkel's disks
What type of receptor is found on all skin, epidermis and some viscera? Free nerve endings
What type of receptor is found in glabrous (hairless) skin? Meissner's corpuscles
What type of receptor is found in deep skin layers, ligaments, and joints? Pacinian corpuscles
What type of receptor is found in hair follicles? Merkel's disks
Which layer of the peripheral nerve layer serves as the permeability barrier? Perineurium
Describe the levels of dopamine in Schizoprenia vs Parkinsons. Increased in Schizoprenia and decreased in Parkinsons.
Describe the levels of NE and 5-HT in anxiety vs depression. Anxiety = increased NE, decreased 5-HT Depression = decresed both NE and 5-HT
Describe the levels of ACh in Alzheimer's vs Huntington's Decreased in both Alzheimer's and Huntingtons.
In the CNS, where is NE synthesized in? Locus ceruleus
In the CNS, where is Dopamine synthesized in? Ventral tegmentum and Substantia Nigra pars compacta
In the CNS, where is 5-HT synthesized in? Raphe nuclues
In the CNS, where is ACh synthesized in? Basal nucleus of Meynert
Which part in the hypothalamus is responsible for making ADH? Supra-optic nucleus
Which part in the hypothalamus is responsible for making oxytoxin? Para-ventricular nucleus
Which part in the hypothalamus is responsible for sexual urges? Septal nucleus
Lesion of which part of the hypothalamus results in hypophagia? Lateral area
Lesion of which part of the hypothalamus results in hyperphagia? Ventro-medial area
Lesion of which part of the hypothalamus results in hyperthermia? Anterior hypothalamus
Lesion of which part of the hypothalamus results in poikilothermia? Posterior hypothalamus
Which part of the hypothalamus is responsible for circadian rhythm? Supra-charismatic nucleus
Which part of the hypothalamus is responsible for controlling the adenohypophysis? Arcuate nucleus
Lesion of which part of the thalamus results in pain in contralateral limbs? Lateral part of the Ventral Posterior nucleus
Which part of the thalamus is responsible for visual input relay? Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
Lesion of which part of the thalamus would results in bilateral decreased hearing and decreased ability to localize sound? Medial Geniculate Nucleus
Which part of thalamus is responsible for facial sensations relay (via CN V)? Medial part of the Ventral Posterior nucleus
Which part of the brain is lesioned in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome? Medio-dorsal nucleus and Mamillary bodies
Which part of the thalamus is responsible for motor relay? Ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei
List the arteries which supply the thalamus. Posterior communicating, posterior cerebral, and anterial choroidal arteries.
List the functions of the limbic system. Involved in 5 F's Feeding, Fleeing, Fighting, Feeling, FXcking.
Kluver-Bucy syndrome is the result of bilateral lesions of? Amygdala and Hippocampus
Lesions to the hippocampus is associated with anterograde or retrograde amnesia? Anterograde amnesia
Contralateral cortical input enters the cerebellum via which peduncle? Middle cerebellar peduncle
Ipsilateral proprioceptive information enters the cerebellum via which peduncle? Inferior cerebellar peduncle
Lesions in which part of the cerebellum would result in an ataxic gait and positive Romberg sign? Vermal (medial) part of cerebellum
Lesions in which part of the cerebellum would result in falling towards side of lesion, intention tremor and limb ataxia? Lateral part of cerebellum
List the input nerves into the cerebellar cortex. Climbing fibers, and Mossy fibers.
List the output nerve out of the cerebellar cortex into the cerebellar medulla. Purkinje fibers
Efferents of the deep cerebellar nuclei output via which peduncle? Superior cerebellar peduncle
List the deep nuclei in the cerebellum from lateral to medial. Don't Eat Greasy Food Dentate, Emboliform, Globose, Fastigial
How would loss of dopaminergic neurons affect the basal ganglia's excitatory and inhibitory pathway? Loss of dopamine inhibits the excitatory pathway (decreased motion) and excites the inhibitory pathway (decreased motion).
Dx : Tremor at rest, cogwheel Rigidity, and Postural instability. Parkinson's disease
Dx : Tremor, Exposure to MPTP Parkinson's disease
Dx : Depigmentation of substantia nigra pars compacta Parkinson's disease
Dx : Lewy bodies (composed of alpha-synuclein) Parkinson's disease
Dx : Sudden, wide flailing of 1 arm Hemiballismus
Dx : Contralateral subthalamic nucleus lesion Hemiballismus
What is the disease that is usually associated with Hemiballismus? Hypertension
Huntington's disease is associated with autosomal-dominant trinucleotide repeat of which chromosome? Chromosome 4
Dx : Atrophy of the caudate nucleus Huntington's disease
Dx : CT shows enlarged lateral ventricles Huntington's chorea
Dx : Chorea, depression, progressive dementia Huntington's chorea
Dx : Expansion of CAG repeats Huntington's chorea
Slow, writhing movements is a characteristic of a lesion in where? Athetosis is a characteristic of a basal ganglia lesion.
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Motor (nonfluent/expressive) aphasia with good comprehension Broca's area
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Sensory (fluent/receptive) aphasia with poor comprehension, neologism Wernicke's area
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in: Conduction aphasia; good comprehension, fluent speech, but poor repetition. Arcuate fasciculus
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behaviour Kluver-Bucy syndrome, caused by bilateral lesions in the Amygdala and hippocampus
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Personality changes and deficits in concentration, orientation and judgment. May also have reemergence of primitive reflexes. Frontal lobe
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Agnosia of the left side of the world. Spatial neglect syndrome, caused by lesions in the right parietal lobe.
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (eg : coma) Reticular activating system (midbrain)
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Confusion, confabulation, opthalmoplegia, ataxia Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, caused by bilateral lesions in Mammillary bodies and Medio-Dorsal nucleus of thalamus
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Contralateral hemiballismus Subthalamic nucleus
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Anterograde amnesia Hippocampus
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Eyes can only look away from side of lesion Paramedian Pontine Reticular Formation (PPRF)
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Eyes can only look toward lesion Frontal eye fields
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Alexia with agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, right-left disorientation Gertmann Syndrome, caused by lesion at angular gyrus
Based on the homunculus, lower extremity deficits in sensation or movement indicates problems associated with which artery? Anterior Cerebral Artery
Based on the homunculus, facial deficits in sensation or movements indicates problems associated with which artery? Middle Cerebral Artery
Based on the homunculus, hand deficits in sensation or movement indicates problems associated with which artery? Middle Cerebral Artery
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Non-fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension Global aphasia, caused by lesions in both Broca's and Wernicke's areas
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Left arm cannot be moved in response to verbal command Transcortical apraxia, caused by lesions in anterior to middle corpus callosum, due to occlusion of Anterior Cerebral Artery
Lesions in which part of the brain would result in : Alexia without agraphia Posterior corpus callosum, due to occlusion of Posterior Cerebral Artery
Where is the most common site of circle of Willis aneurysm? Anterior Communicating Artery
Occlusion of which artery causes : Locked-in syndrome Basilar artery
Occlusion of which artery causes : Nystagmus, ipsilateral ataxia, nausea, vomiting, Horner's syndrome Wallenberg's syndrome, caused by occlusion of Posterior Inferior Communicating Artery
What artery supplies the internal capsule, caudate, putamen and globus pallidus? Lateral striae, which are the divisions of the middle cerebral artery
Epidural hematoma is due to rupture of? Middle meningeal artery
Subdural hematoma is due to rupture of? Bridging veins
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is due to rupture of? Aneurysm
Dx : Bloody or yellow spinal tap Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Dx : CT shows "biconvex disk", not crossing suture lines but can cross falx and tentorium. Epidural hematoma
Dx : CT shows crescent-shaped hemorrhage that crosses suture lines, but cannot cross falx and tentorium. Subdural hematoma
Dx : Hematoma caused by hypertension, amyloid angiopathy, diabetes mellitus and tumor. Parenchymal hematoma, typically occurs in basal ganglia and internal capsule.
CSF is made by what cells? Ependymal cells
CSF from lateral ventricles enter the 3rd ventricle via? Foramen of Monro
CSF from 3rd ventricle enter the 4th ventricle via? Cerebral aqueduct
CSF in 4th ventricle enter subarachnoid space via? 2 lateral Foramina of Luschka, 1 medial Foramina of Magendie
Dx : Dementia, gait problems, urinary incontinence Hydrocephalus
Stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius causes which type of hydrocephalus? Obstructive (noncommunicating) hydrocephalus
Arachnoid adhesions post-meningitis causes which type of hydrocephalus? Normal pressure (communicating) hydrocephalus
At which level of the vertebra is lumbar puncture usually performed? L3-L4-L5 interspaces
Which part of the spinal cord carries information regarding : Upper body pressure, vibration, touch, proprioception Dorsal column's fasciculus cuneatus
Which part of the spinal cord carries information regarding : Lower body pressure, vibration, touch, proprioception Dorsal column's fasciculus gracilis
Which spinal tract is responsible for pain and temperature sensations? Spinothalamic tract
Which spinal tract is responsible for voluntary movement of limbs? Lateral corticospinal tract
Which tract is responsible for pressure, vibration, touch, and proprioceptive sensations? Dorsal column - medial lemniscal pathway
Where do the "pain and temperature" tract decussate? Anterior white commissure (at level of 1st neuron synapse)
Where do the "pressure, vibration, proprioception" tract decussate? Medulla
Where do Upper Motor Neurons decussate? Caudal medulla (pyramidal decussation)
Lesions to which neuron in corticospinal tract results in spastic paralysis? Upper motor neuron
Lesions to which neuron in corticospinal tract results in flaccid paralysis? Lower motor neuron
Lesions to which neuron in corticospinal tract results in : Muscle atrophy, fasiculation, decreased reflexes, and decreased muscle tone Lower motor neuron
Lesion to which neuron in corticospinal tract results in : Increased reflexes, increased muscle tone, and positive Babinski reflex Upper motor neuron
Where do the 1st neuron of dorsal column - medial lemniscal pathway synapse? Ipsilateral nucleus cuneatus or gracilis
Where do the 2nd neuron of dorsal column - medial lemniscal pathway synapse? VPL of thalamus
Where do the 2nd neuron of spinothalamic tract synapse? VPL of thalamus
Dx : Spinal cord lesion resulting in bilateral flaccid paralysis (involves LMN only) Poliomyelitis and Werdnig-Hoffman disease
Dx : Spastic paralysis and flaccid paralysis, with no sensory, cognitive or occulomotor deficits. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Dx : Paresthesia, Pain (shooting), Polyuria, Argyll Robertson pupils plus impaired proprioception, locomotor ataxia, and absence of DTR Tabes dorsalis, due to 3' syphilis
Dx : "Floppy baby", tongue fasiculations Werdnig-Hoffman disease
Dx : Bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation Syringomyelia
Dx : Demyelination of dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal tract, and cerebrospinal tract Vitamin B12 neuropathy, and Frederich's ataxia
Dx : Ipsilateral UMN signs, ipsilateral loss of dorsal column signs, contralateral pain and temperature loss, and LMN signs at level of lesion Brown-Sequard syndrome (hemisection of spinal cord)
Landmark dermatomes - vertebral level : Posterior half of skull "cap" C2
Landmark dermatomes - vertebral level : High turtleneck shirt C3
Landmark dermatomes - vertebral level : Low-collar shirt C4
Landmark dermatomes - vertebral level : At the nipple T4 at the teat pore
Landmark dermatomes - vertebral level : At xiphoid process T7
Landmark dermatomes - vertebral level : At umbilicus T10 at the belly butTEN(and remember that it is important for early appendicitis pain referral)
Landmark dermatomes - vertebral level : At inguinal ligament L1
Landmark dermatomes - vertebral level : includes the kneecaps Down on L4s (all fours)
Landmark dermatomes - vertebral level : Erection and sensation of penile and anal zones S2,3,4 keep the penis off the floor
Which organ monitor muscle length? Muscle spindles
Which organ monitor muscle tension? Golgi Tendon organs
Which nerve root is responsible for Biceps reflex? C5 nerve root
Which nerve root is responsible for Triceps reflex? C7 nerve root
Which nerve root is responsible for Patella reflex? L4 nerve root
Which nerve root is responsible for Archilles reflex? S1 nerve root
List the CN that lie medially at brain stem CN 3, 6, 12 (3x2=6, 6x2=12)
Which part of the brain stem fuctions as to send auditory info to Medial Geniculate Nucleus? Inferior colliculi (ear below eye)
Which part of the brain stem functions as a conjugate vertical gaze center? Superior colliculi (eye above ear)
Which part of the brain stem functions in melatonin secretion and circadian rhythm? Pineal gland
Which CN functions in : Smell CN I
Which CN functions in : Sight CN II
Which CN functions in : a) Innervating Medial rectus b) Innervating Lateral rectus a) CN III b) CN VI
Which CN functions in : Pupillary constriction CN III
Which CN functions in : Accomodation CN III
Which CN functions in : a) Eyelid opening b) Eyelid closing a) CN III b) CN VII
Which CN functions in : Pupillary reflex CN II (sensory part), and CN III (motor part)
Which CN functions in : Gag reflex CN IX (sensory part), and CN IX and X (motor part)
Which CN functions in : Blink reflex CN V1 (sensory part), and CN VII (motor part)
Which CN functions in : Jaw jerk reflex CN V3 (sensory part), and CN V3 (motor part)
Which CN functions in : Lacrimation reflex CN V1 (sensory part), and CN VII (motor part)
Which CN functions in : Innervating superior oblique muscle CN IV
Which CN functions in : a) Salivation from submandibular and sublingual glands b) Salivation from parotid gland a) CN VII b) CN IX
Which CN functions in : Innervating stapedius muscle in ear CN VII
Which CN functions in : Hearing, balance CN VIII
Which CN functions in taste from : a) anterior 2/3 of tongue b) posterior 1/3 of tongue c) epiglottic region a) CN VII b) CN IX c) CN X
Which CN functions in : Innervating stylopharyngeus CN IX (therefore involved in both sensory and motor of gag reflex)
Which CN functions in monitoring chemo- and baro-receptors in : a) carotid body and sinus b) aortic arch a) CN IX b) CN X
Which CN functions in : Head turning and shoulder shrugging CN XI
Which CN functions in : Tongue movement CN XII
Nuclei of which cranial nerve is located in midbrain? Nuclei of CN III, IV
Nuclei of which cranial nerve is located in the pons? Nuclei of CN V, VI, VII, VIII
Nuclei of which cranial nerve is located in the medulla? Nuclei of CN IX, X, XI, XII
Lesion of which nuclei is associated with : Loss of motor innervation of pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus? Nucleus aMbiguus (CN IX, X, XI)
Lesion of which nuclei is associated with : Loss of visceral sensory information (eg : taste, baroreceptors, gut distention) Nucleus Solitarius (CN VII, IX, X)
Which nucleus is responsible for sending parasympathetic fibers to heart, lungs, and upper GI? Dorsal motor nucleus
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Cribiform plate CN I
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Optic canal. CN II, Ophthalmic artery, Central retinal vein
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Superior orbital fissure CN III, IV, V1, VI, and Opthalmic vein
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Foramen Rotundum CN V2
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Foramen Ovale CN V3
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Foramen Spinosum Middle meningeal artery
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Internal auditory meatus CN VII, VIII
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Jugular foramen CN IX, X, XI, and jugular vein
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Hypoglossal canal CN XII
List the CN and/or vessels passing through : Foramen magnum spinal roots of CN XI, brain stem, and vertebral arteries
List the CN that pass through the cavernous sinus. CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI (the nerves that control the extra-ocular muscles plus V1 and V2 pass through the cavernous sinus)
Dx : Opthalmoplegia, opthalmic and maxillary sensory loss Cavernous sinus syndrome
If jaw deviates towards left side, which side is the CN's lesion? Left CN V3 lesion. Jaw deviates towards side of lesion
If tongue deviates towards left side, which side is the CN's lesion? Left CN XII lesion TOngue deviates towards side of lesion (lick your wounds)
If uvula deviates towards left side, which side is the CN's lesion? Right CN X lesion Uvula deviates AWAY from side of lesion
If there is weakness turning head to the left side and shoulder droop on the right side, which side is the CN's lesion? Right CN XI lesion Weakness turning head to contralateral side of lesion, and shoulder droop on side on lesion.
Dx : Paralysis of LEFT lower face Lesion of RIGHT motor cortex or connection between RIGHT cortex and facial nucleus. (only upper face receives bilateral UMN innervation, lower face receives contralateral UMN innervation)
Dx : Ipsilateral facial paralysis with inability to close eye on involved side Bell's palsy. (complete destruction of the facial nucleus or its branchial efferent fibers -facial nerve proper)
Bell's Palsy is seen as a complication to which diseases? ALexander graHam Bell AIDS, Lyme disease, Herpes zoster, Sarcoidosis, Tumors, Diabetes
The following KLM sounds test which CN? a) Kuh-Kuh-Kuh b) La-La-La c) Mi-Mi-Mi a) CN X b) CN XII c) CN VII
List the muscles that a) close the jaw b) opens the jaw a) Masseter, teMporalis, Medial pterygoid b) Lateral pterygoid
Perilymph is rich in Na+ or K+? Na+ (think outside the cell)
Endolymph is rich in Na+ or K+? K+ (think inside the cell)
Which part of the inner ear detects linear acceleration? Maculae in utricle and saccule
Which part of the inner ear detects Angular acceleration? Ampullae in semicircular canals
Which part of the cochlear senses high frequency sounds? Base of the cochlear
Which part of the cochlear senses low frequency sounds? Apex of the cochlear
Dx : Bone conduction greater than air conduction on Rinne Conductive hearing loss
Dx : Weber localizes to LEFT ear Think of : LEFT conductive hearing loss, or RIGHT sensorineural hearing loss.
Dx : Decreased bilateral sensorineural heearing loss + can't localize sound Lesion in hearing pathway ABOVE trapezoid body
Dx : Ipsilateral sensorineural hearing loss Lesion at level of cochlear nucelus
Which part of the eye is responsible for producing aqueous humor? Ciliary process
Which muscle of the eye is responsible for accomodation? Ciliary muscle
Which part of the eye is responsible for collecting aqueous humor from trabecular meshwork? Canal of Schlemm
Which part of the eye is responsible for absorbing aqueous humor? Trabecular meshwork
Which type of glaucoma is painless and associated with obstructed outflow? Open angle glaucoma
Which type of glaucoma is painful, decreased vision, and associated with obstruction of flow between iris and lens? Closed angle glaucoma
Dx : Painless, decrased vision. Risk factors include age, smoking, EtOH, sunlight, diabetes, trauma, infection. Cataract
Dx : Blurred margins, and bigger blind spot. Papilledema
Which CN damage would present as : eyes look down and out, ptosis, pupillary dilation, loss of accomodation CN III
Which CN damage would present as : Diplopia with downward gaze CN IV
Which CN damage would present as : medially directed eye CN VI
Strabismus, deprivation, and unequal refractive errors may result in what eye condition? Amblyopia (reduction of vision from disuse in critical period)
Edinger-Westphal nuclei has cell body of what nerve? CN III
Upper quadrantic anopia is associated with lesion in where? Meyer's look (temporal lobe)
Lower quadrantic anopia is associated with lesion in where? Dorsal optic radiation (parietal lobe)
Bitemporal heteronymous hemianopia is associated with lesion in where? Optic chaisma
Dx : When looking to left, RIGHT eye has medial rectus palsy, and LEFT eye has right-beating nystagmus. Convergence is normal. Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus (MLF) syndrome
Created by: lemontea88