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Science Cells


What is the order of organization of systems? Cell--tissue--organ--organ system--organism
Organism Anything that can live on its own
Cell membrane covered structure that contains all the materials necessary for life
Tissue a group of cells working together to perform a specific job
Organ two or more tissues working together to perform a specific job
Organ system group of organs working together (i.e- digestive, respiratory)
Robert Hooke Saw first cells in cork
Anton Van Leewenhoek first observed living cells in pond water
Cell theory a) all organisms are composed of one or more cells b) cell is the basic unit of life in all living things c) all cells come from other cells
Why can't cells be the size of a basketball? (Include volume/surface area in your answer) Cells are small because the surface is not large enough to bring in enough nutrients or get rid of enough waste to keep cell alive -Inside (volume) grows faster than the outside (surface area) -Big or small organisms have the same size of cells
What are the 2 type of cells? Eukaryote & Prokaryote
Prokaryote No nucleus to contain DNA; it floats around (i.e- bacteria)
Eukaryote Has nucleus which contains DNA (i.e- animal cells)
Organelles little organs of function
Cytoplasm jellylike material that surrounds organelles
What does the cell membrane do? allows nutrients and waste to move into and out of cell -made of phospholipids that do not like water so they force the water to go through gated channels -all cells have cell membrane
Nucleus largest organelle; stores DNA
Nucleolus in nucleus; stores material used to make ribosomes
Ribosomes smallest and most abundant organelle -amino acids hook together to make proteins
Ednoplasmic Reticulum sacks and tunnels of membranes that carry substances to outside of cell -Found a lot in cells that make proteins, lipids, and enzymes -Break down chemicals that harm cells
Types of endoplasmic reticulum Rough- covered with ribosomes; transport proteins Smooth- is not covered with ribosomes
Golgi bodies flattened stacked membranes -changes lipids and proteins, pinches them off into sacks (vesicles) and ships them out of the cell -helps create lusosomes
Vesicle membrane bound structure that carries substances from golgi bodies
Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes -breakdown old cells and bacteria -"garbage trucks" of the cell
What cells have a lot of lysosomes and why? White blood cells b/c they attack bacteria, etc.
Mitochondria energy is released in this organelle from glucose being broken down -active organs like muscles have more mitochondria
Cristae (mitochondria has it) inner folds that increase the surface area so more glucose can be broken down and more energy (ATP) released
Plant cells have some organelles that ___________ don't have animal cells
Plant cells: cell wall made of cellulose -tough and rigid
Chloroplasts contain cholorophyll- green pigment; absorb sunlight where photosynthesis occurs and glucose (sugar) is made
Vacuoles Sack that contains water, waste material, food -Makes up most of cells volume
What are the two basic shapes of cells and what cells are they? Square- plant cells usually round- animal cells
Microscope -magnifies objects
Magnification how much larger a specimen is when using a microscope
List the 3 types of microscopes in order from least magnified to most magnified Light microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, and Transmission Election Microscope
Light microscope the models found in most schools, uses compound lenses and light to magnify objects. -The lenses bend or refract the light, which makes the object beneath them appear closer
Scanning Electron Microscope -SEMs do not use light waves; they use electrons (negatively charged electrical particles) to look at surface of object -Magnify objects up to 500,000X -If you want to look at the surface you may have to cover the surface by a very thin layer of gold
Transmission Electron Microscope aims beam of light through thin slices of specimen -Thicker pieces appear darker -Magnifies up to 1,000,000X
cell membrane- gated channels protein molecules that create openings to allow H2O or sugar, etc. to enter and leave the cell
Created by: spuent



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