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chpt 19B

pulse and blood pressure, along with respiratory rate and body temperature Vital signs
pressure wave caused by the expansion and recoil of arteries Pulse
In systemic arterial blood pressure ,Pressure is increased in the cuff until it exceeds systolic pressure in the biracial artery
occur as blood starts to spurt through the artery (systolic pressure, normally 110–140 mm Hg) Sounds first
when the artery is no longer constricted and blood is flowing freely (diastolic pressure, normally 70–80 mm Hg) Sounds disappear
low blood pressure Systolic pressure below 100 mm Hg Hypotension
temporary low BP and dizziness when suddenly rising from a sitting or reclining position Orthostatic hypotension
hint of poor nutrition and warning sign for Addison’s disease or hypothyroidism Chronic hypotension
important sign of circulatory shock. Acute hypotension
Primary or essential hypertension 90% of hypertensive conditions Etiology unknown. Due to several risk factors including heredity, diet, obesity, age, stress, diabetes mellitus, and smoking Hypertension
is less common Due to identifiable disorders, including kidney disease, arteriosclerosis, and endocrine disorders such as hyperthyroidism and Cushing’s syndrome Secondary hypertension
Is fastest in the aorta, slowest in the capillaries, increases again in veins velocity of blood flow
Slow capillary flow allows adequate time for exchange between blood and tissues
Automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any given point in time Is controlled intrinsically by modifying the diameter of local arterioles feeding the capillaries Autoregulation
Two types of autoregulation Metabolic: Vasodilation of SM via NO. Myogenic : Increased stretch = constriction
Vasodilation of arterioles and relaxation of precapillary sphincters occur in response to Declining tissue O2 ( we need more oxygen !!!) Substances from metabolically active tissues (H+, K+, adenosine, and prostaglandins) and inflammatory chemicals Metabolic Controls
NO is the major factor causing vasodilation
Myogenic responses of vascular smooth muscle keep tissue perfusion constant despite most fluctuations in systemic pressure
promotes increased tone and vasoconstriction Passive stretch
promotes vasodilation and increases blood flow to the tissue ( low pressure) Reduced stretch
Causes kidneys to conserve water. BP increases ADH
Causes BP increases Angiotensin II
Vasoconstriction. Released due to low blood flow. BP increases. Endothelin
A very potent vasodilator. Lowers BP NO
Vasodilator of the skin. Inhibits ADH. Lowers BP Alcohol
Antagonistic to aldosterone. Causes the kidneys to excrete Na. Lowers BP ANP & BNP
Occurs when short-term autoregulation cannot meet tissue nutrient requirements The number of vessels to a region increases and existing vessels enlarge Angiogenesis
Blood flow to the brain is constant, as neurons are intolerant of ischemia
Supplies nutrients to cells (autoregulation in response to O2 need) Helps maintain body temperature (neurally controlled) Provides a blood reservoir (neurally controlled) Blood flow through the skin
Sweat also causes vasodilation via bradykinin in perspiration Bradykinin stimulates the release of NO
Low O2 levels cause vasoconstriction; high levels promote vasodilation
Allows for proper O2 loading in the lungs
Lipid-soluble molecules diffuse directly through endothelial membranes
solutes pass through clefts and fenestrations. Water-soluble
such as proteins, are actively transported in pinocytotic vesicles or caveolae. Larger molecules
Tends to force fluids through the capillary walls Is greater at the arterial end (35 mm Hg) of a bed than at the venule end (17 mm Hg) Capillary hydrostatic pressure (HPc) (capillary blood pressure)
Usually assumed to be zero because of lymphatic vessels Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (HPif)
Created by nondiffusible plasma proteins, which draw water toward themselves Capillary colloid osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure) (OPc)
Low (~1 mm Hg) due to low protein content Interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
comprises all the forces acting on a capillary bed Net Filtration Pressure
At the arterial end of a bed hydrostatic forces dominate
At the venous end osmotic forces dominate
Excess fluid is returned to the blood via lymphatic system
Any condition in which Blood vessels are inadequately filled Blood cannot circulate normally Results in inadequate blood flow to meet tissue needs Circulatory Shock
Hypovolemic shock results from large-scale blood loss. Gun shot.
Vascular shock results from extreme vasodilation and decreased peripheral resistance. Bee stings
Cardiogenic shock results when an inefficient heart cannot sustain adequate circulation. Heart failure.
short loop that runs from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart Pulmonary circulation
long loop to all parts of the body and back to the heart Systemic circulation
Created by: jennysevere24