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marine biology

module 3

TermDefinition
monera this kingdom represents the least complex organisms in creation
bacteria prokaryotic, single-celled, microscopic organisms, lacking nuclei or other organelles
heterotrophic bacteria bacteria that obtain their food is by breaking down either the waste products of other organisms or dead organic material
decomposers organisms that break down dead organic matter into smaller molecules
autotrophic bacteria bacteria capable of self-nourishment by using photosynthesis as a source of energy
chemosynthesis a process that derives energy from specific chemical compounds
cyanobacteria commonly called blue-green algae,, they are not true algae because they are prokaryotic the color comes from the green chlorophyll for photosynthesis as well as the bluish and reddish pigments in their cells
red tide a red discoloration of the sea by the presence of large numbers of microscopic flagellates, and can be very harmful to the other organisms in the area
nitrogen fixation the process of combining atmospheric nitrogen with other elements
stromatolites a structure built by marine algae and are found off the coast of Australia and in the Caribbean Sea
Protista this kingdom, contains some organisms are plant-like, and others are animal-like
unicellular algae plant-like organisms
Phytoplankton organisms that drift in the water
Diatoms these are extremely plentiful phytoplankton in the ocean
silicon dioxide a glass-like material
frustule the glass-like cell wall
diatomaceous ooze when the glassy material builds up, it forms what scientists call it this
diatomaceous earth large fossilized deposits of what was once diatomaceous ooze
auxospore once the egg and sperm unite, fertilization occurs, and this naked cell is produced
silicoflagellates these organisms have ornate, silica cell walls, one or two flagella, and many small chloroplasts
coccolithophores these unicellular organisms have many round, chalk-like plates, called coccoliths, embedded in their cell walls
coccoliths chalk-like plates
dinoflagellate possess two unequal flagella, one wrapped around a groove in their middles and another trailing freely
bloom dinoflagellates under the right conditions can reproduce at tremendous rates, resulting in dense concentrations of individuals resulting in this
bioluminescence organisms use this ability to produce their own light through this process
protozoan are animal-like, ingest food and are eukaryotic , unicellular and inhabit water, and can even live inside other organisms
zooplankton tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa
holoplankton spend their entire lives as plankton
meroplankton larval stages of organisms that can swim against the currents once they are mature
foraminiferans resemble an amoeba with a shell of calcium carbonate
test a shell of calcium carbonate
pseudopodia project through the test in order to trap food or for locomotion
foraminiferan ooze tests eventually sink to the ocean floor blanking it and creating this
radiolarians secrete delicate shells made mostly of silica
radiolarian ooze the remains of radiolarians shells settle to the bottom of the ocean and forms this
ciliates protozoans that have many hair-like cilia that provide a means of locomotion
tintinnids a cell that is partly covered with cemented particles and is shaped like a vase the mouth of the vase are cilia used for feeding
thallus the complete body of an alga, not differentiated into true leaves, stems, or roots
blades flattened leaf-like forms on kelp, but are not true leaves because there is no veins,and the upper and lower surfaces are the same
pneumato cysts bulb-shaped blatters filled with gas to help the blades get sunlight
stripe connects the blades and the pneumato cysts
holdfast acts as the kelp's anchor
Chlorophyta the phylum that contains green algae
Phaeophyta the phylum that contains brown algae
algin found along the cell walls of the brown algae, it keeps things stay mixed-together
Salgasso Sea sargassum is fund in such large quantities in the central Atlantic that it is often called
Kelp this is a more common name for Macrocystis
Rhodophyta the phylum that contains Red algae
Phycobilins the color pigments that give red algae its reddish color
accessory pigments these can absorb the dim blue light that penetrates the deeper sea depths
agar a source from red algae that scientists use to grow bacteria
vegetative reproduction asexually reproduction is sometimes called his
diploid cell (2n) a cell that has chromosomes which come in pairs
haploid cell (1n) a cell that contains half the normal number of chromosomes (one from each pair)
sporophytes haploid spores
gametophyte generation second-generation haploid thallus
sporophyte generation the zygote then grows into a diploid thallus known as this
alternation of generations a life cycle that alternates between a sexual stage and an asexual stage
carpospore a diploid spore
Kingdom Fungi the 3rd kingdom of marine organisms
symbiosis a close relationship between two species where at least one benefits
lichen an organism that results from the symbiosis between a fungus and a alga
Kingdom Plantae this kingdom contains seagrasses, salt water marsh plants, and mangroves
cordgrasses this member of the grass family, lives in temperate regions of the world in soft, sandy areas along the coast
mangroves salt-tolerant plants, can't tolerate frost, found in the tropics and sub-tropics, can get as big as shrubs or trees, and can form dense forests along muddy shores
proproots grow directly down from the branches forming a dense, tangled undergrowth
Created by: #1DoctorWhoFan