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Apologia General Science Module 4

A shovel is an example of a lever. To what class does a shovel belong? third-class
A child's see-saw is a lever. To what class does it belong? first-class
How is applied science different from science? in motive. In applied science, the goal is to make something better. In science, the goal is simply to learn.
What gives rise to technology? accident, science, or applied science
List the six types of simple machines. lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge, and screw
Which two simple machines look identical? inclined plane and the single wedge
What is the mechanical advantage of a first-class lever in which the fulcrum is 10 inches from the resistance and 40 inches from the effort? M=distance from fulcrum to effort/distance from fulcrum to resistance M=40/10=4
If you are having a hard time turning a screw, should you get a longer screwdriver or a fatter one? fatter. The MA is dependent on the circumference of the screwdriver.
Science is motivated by the desire to __________ understand.
In applied science, experiments are aimed at trying to find something _____________ useful.
Technology is often the result of __________, __________________, or _____________. accident, applied science, or science.
Experiments designed to determine why lightning bugs glow would be considered _________ experiments. science.
Experiments designed to produce a device that glows like a lightning bug would be __________________. applied science
If ever produced, the actual device would be considered __________________ technology
The ______________ consists of a bar and a fulcrum. lever
The ___________ consists of a wheel that connects to a cylinder. wheel and axle
A ______________ consists of a wheel over which a rope or chain moves. pulley
An _______________ is simply a ramp. inclined plane
An inclined plane looks just like a ____________ but the difference is based on where the effort is exerted. wedge
The effort is exerted along the ___________ of an inclined plane, but it is exerted against the _______________ of a wedge. slope, short side
A ____________ is composed of an inclined plane wrapped around the cylinder of a _______________. screw, wheel and axle
In a first class lever, the ____________ is between the effort and resistance. fulcrum
The fulcrum ____________ the direction of the effort and magnifies the ____________. changes, force
In a second-class lever, the _______________ is between the fulcrum and the effort. resistance
The resistance in a second-class lever __________ the direction of the effort and magnifies the ___________. does not change, force
In a third-class lever, the _________ is between the fulcrum and resistance. effort
The effort in a 3rd class lever _________________ the direction of the effort and magnifies ______________. does not change, speed
You can determine the mechanical advantage of a lever with the equation: MA=(distance from fulcrum to effort) / (distance from fulcrum to resistance)
A single, fixed pulley offers no _____________, but it does ______________ the direction of the force. mechanical advantage, change
If several pulleys are put together in a block-and-tackle system, there is a ____________, but you "pay" for it by needing to _________________. mechanical advantage, pull more rope
The force with which you pull on a block-and-tackle system is multiplied by the _______________ in the system. number of pulleys
If you turn the wheel of a wheel and axle, the mechanical advantage magnifies the ____________ of the effort. force
If you turn the axle of a wheel and axle, the mechanical advantage magnifies the _____________ of the effort. speed
The mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle can be calculated with the equation: MA=(diameter of the wheel) / (diameter of the axle)
In an inclined plane, you can lift an object using less _____________, but you must push it over a _________________ distance. force, longer
A ________________ looks just like an inclined plane, but it is used to separate things. wedge
You can calculate the mechanical advantage of either a wedge or an inclined plane with the equation: MA=(length of slope) / (height)
The mechanical advantage of a screw is calculated with the following equation: MA=(circumference) / (pitch)
When grasping the screw's head, you use the circumference of the ______________. screw's head
When using a screwdriver, you use the circumference of the ______________ screwdriver
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