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11 Biology

Chapter 2, Unit 1

TermDefinition
virus a structure that contains strands of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protective protein coat; it cannot live independently outside of cells
capsid the outer protein layer that surrounds the genetic material of a virus
replication the fundamental process of all cells, in which the genetic material is copied before the cell reproduces
lytic cycle the replication process in viruses in which the virus's genetic material used the copying machinery of the host cell to make new viruses
lysogenic cycle the replication process in viruses, in which the viral DNA enters the host cell's chromosome; it may remain dormant and later activate and instruct the host cell to produce more viruses
prion an infectious particle that causes damage to nerve cells in the brain, and that appears to consist mostly or entirely of a single protien
bacterium (bacteria) an individual prokaryotic cell or a single species that is in the domain Bacteria
archaeon (archaea) an individual prokaryotic cell or a single species that is in the domain Archaea
bacillus (bacilli) a micro-organism whose overall morphology is rod-shaped
methanogenesis a biological (or chemical) process that produces methane as an by-product
extremophile an organism that lives in habitats characterized by extreme conditions
mesophile an organism that lives in habitats characterized by moderate conditions
binary fission the asexual form of reproduction used by most prokaryotes (and some eukaryotic organelles), in which a cell divides into two genetically identical cells (or organelles)
conjugation a process in which there is a transfer of genetic material involving two cells
endospore a dormant bacterial cell able to survive for long periods during extreme conditions
Gram stain a stain that separates bacteria into two major divisions (Gram positive and Gram negative) based on the cell wall's response to the stain
endosymbiosis theory that explains how eukaryotic cells evolved fro the symbiotic relationship between two or more prokaryotic cells
endosymbiont a cell that is engulfed by another cell in endosymbiosis
host cell a cell that engulfs another cell in endosymbiosis
protist a eukaryotic organism, usually unicellular, that is not a fungus, plant, or animal
parasite an organism that benefits by living in or on another organism at the expense of that organism
pseudopod (pseudopodia) a temporary cytoplasmic extension that amoebas use for feeding and movement
cilium (cilia) a short, hair-like projection that functions in cell movement and particle manipulation when coordinated with other cilia
flagellum (flagella) a long, hair-like projection extending from the cell membrane that propels the cell using a whip-like motion
red tide a coastal phenomenon in which dinoflagellates that contain red pigments are so concentrated that the seawater has a distinct red colour
Created by: honey.deering