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BIOL 114

Word Roots

TermDefinition
hypo below (hypothesis: a tentative explanation)
aqua water (aqueous: a type of solution in which water is the solvent)
co; valent together; strength (covalent bond: an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons)
iso equal (isotope: an element having the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons)
neutr neither (neutron: a subatomic particle with a neutral electrical charge)
di; sacchar two; sugar (disaccharide: two monosaccharides joined together)
glyco; gen sweet; producing (glycogen: a polysaccharide sugar used to store energy)
hydro; lyse water; break (hydrolysis: breaking chemical bonds by adding water)
iso; meros equal; part (isomer: molecules with similar molecular formulas but different structures)
macro big (macromolecules: a giant molecule in living organisms)
mono single (monosaccharide: simplest type of sugar)
philic loving (hydrophilic: water-loving property of a molecule)
phobos fearing (hydrophobic: water-repelling property of a molecule)
poly many (polymer: a chain made from smaller organic molecules)
sclero hard (atherosclerosis: hardening of the arteries)
tri three (triglyceride: a glycerol molecule joined with three fatty acid molecules)
chloro green (chloroplast: the green organelle of photosynthesis)
chromo color (chromosome: a threadlike, darkly staining structure packaging DNA in the nucleus)
cili small hair (cilium: a short, hair like cellular appendage with a microtubule core)
cyto cell (cytoplasm: cell region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane)
endo inner (endomembrane system: an internal system of membranous organelles)
eu true (eukaryotic: cell type with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other organelles)
extra outside (extracellular: the substance around animal cells)
flagell whip (flagellum: a long, whiplike cellular appendage that moves cells)
micro small (microtubule: microscopic tubular filaments contributing to the cytoskeleton)
plasm molded (plasma membrane: the thin layer that sets a cell apart from its surroundings)
pro before (prokaryotic: the first cells, lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other organelles)
reticul network (endoplasmic reticulum: membranous network where proteins are produced)
trans across (transport vesicles: membranous spheres that move materials across a cell)
vacu empty (vacuole: sac that buds from the ER, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane)
endo within, inner
cyto cell (endocytosis: taking material into a cell)
exo outside (exocytosis: eliminating some materials outside of a cell)
hyper excessive (hypertonic: in comparing two solutions, it refers to the one with the greater concentration of solutes)
hypo lower (hypotonic: in comparing two solutions, it refers to the one with the lower concentration of solutes)
kinet move (kinetic: type of energy, it is the energy of motion)
phago eat (phagocytosis: cellular eating)
pino drink (pinocytosis: cellular drinking)
tonus tension (isotonic: solutions with equal concentrations of solutes)
eco house (ecology: the study of how organisms interact with their environments)
Created by: EdL