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Integumentary System

Integumentary system

QuestionAnswer
Identify the two main layers of the cutaneous membrane dermis and epidermis
Identify the five layers of the epidermis Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum
What determines skin color? The amount of pigments in your skin (melanin, carotene and hemoglobin) Melanin is made by the skin.
Describe the process of cornification the conversion of skin cells into keratin or other horny material such as nails or scales
What are freckles? local accumulations of melanin
Why do we tan? As a result of exposure to sunlight, the melanocytes are stimulated to produce more melanin, also triggered by damage to the DNA from the sun.
Describe the functions of skin protection (physical, chemical and biological barrier), Temperature regulation, sensation, metabolic functions, blood reservoir, excretion.
What are the two layers of the dermis Papillary layer and Reticular layer
What type of tissue makes up the papillary layer? areolar connective tissue
What type of tissue comprises the reticular layer? dense irregular connective tissue
What does hypodermis mean? Area below the dermis. Not part of the skin. Mostly fat.
What are the four cell types of the epidermis? keratinocyte, melanocyte, dendritic, tactile
What cell type primarily makes up the epidermis? keratinocytes
Where are skin cells regenerated? stratum basale by stem cells (dividing keratinocytes)
Which layer of the epidermis is only present in thick skin? stratum lucidum
Which layer of the epidermis is most superficial? stratum corneum
Which areas of the body have "thick" skin? soles of feet and palms of hands
Where would you find a melanocyte? near the stratum basale where the stem cells are
Where does the hair grow from? follicle
Type of gland associated with a hair follicle sebaceous
Type of gland producing watery secretion to cool the body sweat gland
What is the ceruminous gland Produces ear wax to protect the ear
Which gland is important for nourishing an infant? mammary gland
Proximal end of the nail underneath the cuticle root
Deep to the root, site of nail growth germinative zone
Most distal point of nail free border or free edge
Main part of the nail that you can see nail body
Another name for cuticle eponychium
The crescent shaped white area near proximal end of nail body lunula
Glands are located in which part of the skin? dermis
Glands are made from what type of tissue? epithelial
Area of the skin with nerves, capillaries, hair follicles dermis
The purpose of head hair is to cushion blows, protect from UV and insulate
The purpose of nose/ear hair is to guard entrances
Two types of hair are vellus and terminal
The type of hair that has pigment terminal
Type of hair called "peach fuzz" vellus
What are the three types of skin cancer we studied? Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma
Which type of skin cancer produces malignant tumors and is the most dangerous? melanoma
Distinguish between the classes of burns 1st degree is epidermis only; 2nd degree has blisters and part of dermis is affected; 3rd degree affects the full thickness of skin
Which class of burn might require skin grafts? 3rd degree
Which class of burn is sun burn usually? 1st degree
Why is it important to get some UVB exposure from the sun? to produce the precursor of Vitamin D in the skin which is important for calcium absorption
What types of barriers does your skin provide? As a physical barrier, chemical barrier (acidic), and biological barrier (immune response)
Name 6 functions of skin protection, blood reservoir, temperature regulation, excretion, vitamin D synthesis, sensation
Name the four stages of wound healing hemostasis; inflammatory; proliferative; remodeling
Describe the process of wound healing blood clots to form a barrier and stop the bleeding; immune cells kill bacteria/invaders; fibroblasts create collagen and new matrix to rebuild skin; wound contracts and closes. Unnecessary cells removed and collagen remodeled.
What is the selective pressure on skin color towards the poles? Selection for paler skin that enables vitamin D synthesis (darker pigments block the weaker UVB rays)
What is the selective pressure on skin color toward the equator? Selection for darker skin that blocks the strong UV rays that break down folate necessary for fetal development. Also prevents skin cancer.
Created by: PRO Teacher jhaase