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Nerophys 2 PCC

First lecture exam

Four type of stimuli 1. Mechanical deformation 2. Chemical 3. Change in temp 4. Electromagnetic
T or F: extremes of temperature stimulates thermoreceptors False: stimulates nociceptors
Curret flows in which direction (2) 1. the same direction of positive ion movement 2. Opposite direction of negative ion movement
Firing rate of a nerve increases when? When the receptor potential gets higher above threshold
When we speak of relatively non adapting responses, we are refering to what adaptation? Slow
Six slow adapting receptors 1. Joint capsule 2. Muscle spindle 3. Nerkel's discs 4. Ruffini end organs 5. Nociceptors 6. free nerve endings
Rapidly adaptive receptors respond to what? What are three of them? Vibration 1. Hair receptors 2. Pacinian corpuscles 3. Meisner's corposules
1. Hair receptors respond to how many Hz? Pacinian corpuscles? Meisner's corpuscles? 1. 30-40 Hz 2. 250 Hz 3. 30-40 Hz
Membrane adaptation is thought to be due to entry of what ion? How? 1. Ca+ 2. Ca opens K channels pumping K out of the cell taking it further away from threshold
1. In Lloyd's system, which types are myelinated? Which is the largest? Which is the smallest? Which is unmyelinated? 1. I II III 2. I 3. IV 4. IV
How fast would a myelinates 8m nerve transmit information? 48 m per s
How fast would an unmyelinates 12m nerve transmit information? 12 m/s
1. Slow adaptation 2. Rapid Adaptation Tonic or phasic? 1. Tonic 2. Phasic
Type I mechanoreceptors : 1. Threshold 2. Adaptation 3. Speed/size 1. Low threshold 2. slow adapting 3. Fastest/largest
Type II mechanoreceptors : threshold, adaptive ability, size/speed 1. Low threshold 2. Rapidly adapting 3. A little smaller and a little slower than type I
Type III mechanoreceptors : threshold, adaptive ability, size/speed 1. Very high 2. Slow adaptation 3. A little smaller and slower than type II
Type IV mechanoreceptors : threshold, adaptive ability, size/speed 1. Very high 2. Slow adaptation 3. Smallest/slowest
Which type receptor is responsible for nociception? IV
All ____ order neurons cross Second
Where are first order neuron cell bodies? DRG
2nd order spinothalamics/anterolateral system neurons cell bodies are where? Spinal cors
2nd order distal column neuron cell bodies are located where? Brainstem
3rd order cell bodies are found where? Thalamus
1. Anterolateral system/spinothalamics cross over where? 2. Dorsal columns cross over where? 1. Spinal cord 2. Brainstem
T or F A single sensory axon gives us all relevant information? False: properties of an object are processes by many
Four types of sensory information that we can detect 1. Pressure 2. Cold 3. Warth 4. Nociception
1. Sensation of wet = ___ + ___ 2. Ticklish = ___+___ 3. Itching = ___ + ____ 1. Light pressure + cold temp 2. Gentle + Pressure 3. Gentle stimulation + Nociceptors
What receptors on the finger pads detect extremely fine textures? Pacinian corpuscles
Three rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors 1. Meisners 2. Hair follicles 3. Pacinian
1. What 2 mechanoreceptors respond to vibration? 2. RA or SA? 1. Meisner's and Pacinian 2. RA
2 slow adapting mechanoreceptors Merkel's and Ruffini's
Which had a larger receptive field? Superficial or deep mechnoreceptors? Deep = Pacinian and Ruffini
1. Superficial mechanoreceptors include what two? Smalle or large receptive feild? 1. Meisner's and Merkel's 2. Small receptive feild
Which RA mechanoreptor is more sensitive to increase frequency? Pacinian (200 Hz)
Surround inhibition occurs when? When 1st order neurons stimulate 2nd order neurons which stimulates neighboring 2nd order neurons
1. Surround inhibition occurs universially where? 2. Enhances __ but not __ 1. CNS 2. Adges but not Acuity
1. 2 major pathways? 2. Which carry ipsilateral info? why? 1. Dorsal column - medial lemniscal system, anterolateral system 2. Dorsal/medial-lemniscal system because they don't cross until the brainstem
Pain and temp are felt with what system? Anterolateral system (contralateral)
Look at table with mechanoreceptors sup vs deep etc
Damage to left leg may be damage to what part of cord? why? Left side of dorsal collum medial lemniscal system because these fibers don't cross until the brainstem
Which system crossesw in the cord? Anterolateral system
1. Affects aspects of touch and proprioception 2. Affects senstions of crude touch, nociception, temp, sexual sensation 1. Dorsolateral-medial lemniscal system 2. Anterolateral system
T or F: Most nerve cells are reponsive to multiple modalities? False: only one modality
Broadman ares 3, 1, 2 = what? S1
T or F: there is only one sensory homunculus? False: Broadman areas 3,1,2 all have their own complete map of body surface
Brodmann area 3,1,2: Rapidly adapting cutaneous receptoirs 2. Muscle stretch receptors 3. Cutaneous receptors 4. Deep pressure receptors 1. 1 2. 3A 3. 3B 4. 2
Three types of neurons in the broadmann areas 1 and 2 Motion sensitive neurons, direction sensitive neurons, orientation sensitive neurons
Type of neuron that respond best to movement across a specific axis? Orientation sensitive neurons
Neurons that responds well to movement in all directions Motion sensitive neurons
Two broadmann areas that integrate stereognostic and visual information which projects then to the the frontal lobe? 5 and 7
Broadmaa area of the posterior parietal cortex that intergrates tactile input from the skin with proprioceptive inputs from underlying muscles and joints 5
Where is BA 5 and 7 located? 5 = posterior to 3,1,2 7 = inferior to 5
1. Secondary somatic sensory cortex (S-II) is locates where? 2. Where does it project its information to? 1.1. Sylvian fissure 2. Insula or Isle of Reil
Projection from __ are required function for S-II S-1
Three things stimulating that can activates nociceptors? 1. Mechanical stimuli 2. Extremes of thermal stimuli 3. Chemical stimuli
T or F : Pain is the same thing as nociception? False: Pain is the perception of the nociceptive input
T or F: Pain is a primitive sensation True
___ are the least differentiated sensory receptors in the body? Nociceptors
Nociceptors can be sensitized by tissue damage...what does this mean? Lowers pain threshold...law of faciliation
K, Seratonin, bradykini, histamine, prostaglandin, substance P...which causes activation, which cause sensitization? Prostaglandins and substance P cause sensitization
1. A delta fibers AKA? 2. C fibers AKA? 1. III 2, IV
1. A delta fibers sense what kind of pain? 2. C fibers sense what kind of pain? 1. Sharp 2. Dull ache
1. A delta fibers release what neurotransmitter 2. C fibers? 1.Glutamine 2. Substance P / Glutamine
T or F: Sustance P is a fast acting neurotransmitter? False: Prolongs sensation
Localization of pain: A fibers? C fibers? 1. Good 2. Poor
Modes od external stimuli: A delta fibers C fiber? 1. Mechanical / thermal 2. Plymodal / chemical
Termination: A delta? C fibers? 1. VB of thalamus 2. Diffuse termination
1. C fibers release ___ and __? 2. Which is the fast component? 3. Where do C fibers terminate? 1. Glutamate and Substance P 2. Glutamate 3. Substantia gelatinosa
Which fibers usually terminate in the substantia gelatinosa? Nociceptive C-Fibers
4 cardinal signs of inflammation? Robor, Calor, Tumor, Dolar
Which between the CNS and PNS responds to the gating theory? PNS
CNS controls pain how? 1. Direct electrical signals to the brain 2. by use of interneurons (gate control)
CNS or PNS uses endogenous opiuds and canabinoids to block pain? CNS
Which two types of fibers block pain in gate-control theory? A Alpha and B betas (also via tens unit)
What neurons are inhibited with endogenous opiods? 2nd order projection neurons
Paraquaductal gra--1--- 2 ---3--- cord ---4--- inhibition of C a A delta fibers 1. Enkephalins 2. Raphe N 3. Seratonin 4. Enkephalins
Cannabinoids receptors in the brain CB 1
2 endogenous cannabinoids produces by the brain 1. Anadamide 2. 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)
What can occur if surgery is used to treat pain? Pain can return with new sensations never felt before
2 things which may cause irritation of meninges Alcohol abuse and constipation
How does referred pain occur? First order neuron of the skin and viscera share a common 2nd order neuron
How can muscle spam cause headache relating to the pain receptors in the meninges? There are connective tissue bridges between muscle and dura mater in cervical spine
Why can cervical joint dysfunction cause headaches? Because there is overlap of the CN 5 nuclei down the cord
CV V nucleus of termination extends down to where? C2
1. Extrafusal fibers are innervated by __? 2. Intrafusal? 1. Alpha motor neurons 2. Gamma motor neurons
Are muscl spindles extrafusal or intrafusal fibers? Intrafusal
Afferent iunnervation of muscle spindle cells (2) Group Ia (large diameter) and group II (small diamter) ... myelinated
SPindles are efferently innervated by what? Gamma motor neurons
What are GTOs innervated by? Ib afferent fibers
GTOs are in series with __ fibers? Extrafusal fibers
When spindles are activatesd it initiates a reflec which stimulates __ neurons to contract the muscle Alpha motor
Muscle spindles are __ to extrafusal fibers? Parallel
1.. Which responds to static stretch of a muscle? (nerve) 2. Dynamic strech? 1. Group II fibers 2. Group Ia fibers
Nuclear chains respond to __ streches. (___ neurons) 1. Static 2. II
1. What do primary endings sense? 2. Secondary endings? 1. Dynanic stretches 2. Static lenght of muscle
GTOs are innervated by a single __ fiber Ib
1. Spindles cause __ 2. GTOs cause ___ 1. Contraction 2. Innibition
Do GTOs have a motor neuron? No
What do gamma motor neurons do? Cause contration of spindle cells to keep their tension relevent to the rest of the muscle. This way they can monitor stretch at any given lenght
3 things that gamma motor neurons are controlled by? Reticular formations, vestibular system, cutaneuous snesory recetors
In a slow muscle contraction __ shortens, slower than ___ fibers. 1. Intrafusal 2. Extrafusal
Spindles in conjuction with GTO provide CNS with what? Propriocetion
Site of neuronal input can be what? The same site for multiple outputs... site of incomming convergence and site of outgoing divergence
IOncresed signal strenght that is transmitted by progrssively greater number of fibers? What is this called? Spatial summation
Increase signal strenght by increasing frequency of IPS Temporal summation
Sum of EPSP is greater that IPSP...will depol occur? yep
What occurs in facilitation? Closer to threshold but not quite there
What phenomena is responsible for long term memory? LTP - Long Term Perpetion
2 ways signals can be prolonged? 1. Synaptic afterdischarge 2. Reverbratory Circut
Type of signal prolongation in which postive feedback within a circuit due to collateral fibers which restimulate itself or neighboring neurons in the same circuit? Reverberatory neuron
Reverberatory circuit can be subject to ___ or ___ 1. Facilitation 2. Inhibition
Continous intrinsiuc neuronal discharge occurs because of what? (2) Less negative membrane potential and leaky membrane to Na/Ca
In continous Reverberatory signals: IPS ___ with excitation IPS ___ with inhibition 1. increase 2. decrease
What part of the nervous system exhibits continous signal output - self excitatory ANS
Systems in which undergo rhytmic signal output result from what kind of circuit? (example) Reverberatory circuits (phrenic to diaphragm)
Almost every part of the brain connects with every other part (directly or indirectly) This may cause the problem of over excitation...what is this problem caused by? 1. Inhibitory circuits 2. Fatigue of synapse 3. Decreasing RMP 4. Down regulation of receptors
Change in EEG resulting from stimulation of a sensory pathway Sensxory Evoked Potential
EEG are recorded during what? Repetative natural sitmuli
T or F : senbsory evoked potential consist of multiple components related to various aspects of subcortical and cortical processing? True
EPs are clinically usefull for what? (2) Assessing the function of sensory systems and evaluating demyelinating diseases
Created by: LrB