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Human Biology & Health Ch 2. Section 1- 4

nutrients substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all its essential processes
calorie the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius
carbohydrate nutrient composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that is a major source of energy
glucose a sugar that is the major source of energy for the body's cells
protein nutrient that contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen ; they are needed for tissue growth and repair and play a part in chemical reactions within cells
vitamin molecules that act as helpers in a variety of chemical reactions within the body
mineral nutrients that are needed by the body in small amounts and are not made by living things
digestion the process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules
esophagus a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
mucus a thick , slippery substance produced by the body
small intestine the part of the digestive system in which most chemical digestion takes place
liver the largest organ in the body ; it plays a role in many processes
gallbladder the organ that stores the bile after it is produced by the liver
large intestine the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed into the bloodstream and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
rectum the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid from before being eliminated
absorption the process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood
saliva the fluid released when the mouth waters that plays an important role in both mechanical and chemical digestion
enzyme the protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body
epiglottis a flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering
peristalsis involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
stomach J - shaped , muscular pouch located in the abdomen
bile is the substance that breaks up fat particles
pancreas produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine and break down starches , proteins and fats
villus or villi absorb nutrient molecules
anus a muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body
Created by: mrsschaaf
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