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Honors Biology S1 17

TermDefinition
Amino Acids Compounds with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other.
Macromolecules Very big molecules; formed by polymerization.
Polymerization The fusing of smaller compounds to make larger ones.
Carbohydrates Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen (1:2:1): Building blocks are simple sugars; main energy source for living things.
Amino group (i.e. -NH2) Left side of cell grouping
Side Chain (variable) Bottom of cell grouping
Carboxyl Group Right side of cell grouping
Proteins Macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.
Acid Any compound that forms hydrogen (H+) ions in solutions. pH<7.
Neutral pH=7 (Pure Water)
Base Any compound that produces hydroxide (OH) ions in solutions. pH>7.
pH Power Of Hydrogen
Enzymes Proteins that act as biological catalysts (speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction). Affected by time, temperature, and pH.
Monosaccharide "One sugar" i.e. C6H1206. Molecules can have different shapes and/or arrangements of atoms/ions. (Examples: Glactose, Fructose [fruits], and galactose)
Disaccharide "Two sugars" Double Molecule sugars. Examples: Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose.
Polysaccharide "Many Sugars" Have long chains; many simple sugars joined together. (Examples: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose.)
Elements are made of only one kind of atom.
What is shared when a covalent bond occurs? Electrons
What are the outermost electrons are called? Valence electrons
A solution is a evenly distributed mixture of two or more substances.
Created by: jack.thompson