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FA GI Anatomy

QuestionAnswer
List the abdominal layers from superficial to deep. 1) Skin 2) Superficial fascia (Camper and Scarpa) 3) External oblique 4) Internal oblique 5) Transverse abdominis 6) Transversalis fascia 7) Extraperitoneal tissue 8) Peritoneum
Name the 2 ligaments in the lesser omentum. Hepato-duodenal ligament, and Gastro-hepatic ligament
What ligament connects the spleen to the posterior abdominal wall? Splenorenal ligament
What ligament contains the splenic artery and vein? Splenorenal ligament
The gastro-hepatic ligament contains which artery? Gastric artery
The gastro-colic ligament contains which artery? Gastro-epiploic artery
The gastro-splenic ligament contains which artery? Short gastrics
What structures are directly anterior and directly posterior to the epiploic foramen of Winslow? Anterior = Portal triad Posterior = IVC
Which enteric nerve plexus is in the GI submucosa layer? What is its function? Submucosal nerve plexus (Meissner's). Function = coordinates Motility
Which enteric nerve plexus is in the GI muscularis externa layer between the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle? What is its function? Myenteric nerve plexus (Auerbach's). Function = regulates local Secretions, blood flow and absorption
State the differences between the type of muscle in the upper 1/3 of the esophagus and the lower 1/3 of the esophagus. Upper 1/3 = striated muscle Lower 1/3 = smooth muscle Middle 1/3 = both
State the branches of the celiac trunk. Common hepatic artery, Splenic artery, Left gastric artery
A peptic ulcer may affect which artery? Gastroduodenal artery, which is directly behind the pylorus
Caput medusa is a result of anastamosis between which veins? Paraumbilical <-> superficial and inferior epigastric
Esophageal varices is a result of anastamosis between which veins? Left gastric <-> esophageal
Internal hemorrhoids is a result of anastamosis between which veins? Superior rectal <-> middle and inferior rectal
State the veins in which a portocaval shunt can be inserted to relieve portal hypertension. Splenic vein and left renal vein.
State the arterial supply of the rectum above the pectinate line and below the pectinate line. Above pectinate line = Superior rectal artery (branch of IMA) Below pectinate line = Inferior rectal artery (branch of internal pudendal artery)
State the venous drainage of the rectum above the pectinate line and below the pectinate line. Above the pectinate line = superior rectal vein -> inferior messenteric vein -> portal system Below the pectinate line = inferior rectal vein -> internal pudendal vein -> internal iliac vein -> IVC
State the innervation below the pectinate line. Innervated by inferior rectal nerve (branch of the pudendal nerve), which is a somatic innervation.
State the liver zone which is 1st affected by viral hepatitis. Zone I
State the liver zone which is 1st affected by ischaemia. Zone III
State the liver zone which is most sensitive to toxic injury. Zone III
List the structures contained in the femoral triangle. Femoral vein, artery and nerve.
What is the difference between the content of the inguinal canal in male and female? Male = Inguinal canal has gonadal artery (sperm cord) Female = Inguinal canal has caudal genital ligament (round ligament)
Which layer of the abdominal wall forms the external spermatic fascia? External oblique layer's fascia
Which layer of the abdominal wall forms the cremasteric muscle and fascia? Internal oblique layer
Which layer of the abdominal wall forms the internal spermatic fascia? Transversalis fascia
Whiich type of hernia displaces the gastro-esophageal junction? Sliding hiatal hernia
Diaphragmatic hernia may occur in infants as a result of what? Defective development of pleuroperitoneal membrane?
Indirect inguinal hernia may occur in infants due to what? Failure of processus vaginalis to close
What is the difference between the coverings of direct vs indirect inguinal hernia? Indirect inguinal hernia is covered by all 3 layers of the spermatic fascia, but direct inguinal hernia is only covered by the external spermatic fascia.
Indirect inguinal hernia is lateral to what artery? Inferior epigastric artery
State the boundaries which form the Hesselbach's triangle. Inferior epigastric artery, Lateral border of rectus abdominis, Inguinal ligament
Created by: lemontea88