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Chapter 20&22

Pharm 20&22 "psychotropic"

__________________, refers to any substance that acts on the mind. Psychotropic
Psychotropic medicines are drugs that can exert a therapeutic effect on a person's_________________________, ______________, or ________. mental processes, emotions, or behavior
The five classes of psychotropic medicines are? "Psycho" 1)Central Nervous system stimulant 2) antidepressants 3)anxiolytic 4) antimanic 5) antipsychotic
What is the only over the counter (OTC) drug proven safe and effective in helping fight fatigue and drowsiness? Caffeine
Excessive consumption of caffeine, especially with alcohol or other drugs can lead to life threatening _____________, ___________, __________. Irregular heartbeats, Heart Attack, and Seizures
CNS Stimulates are given for the purpose of? Promoting CNS function or CNS dysfunction
Using CNS stimulants with the use of MAOI's could cause? hypertensive crisis
This type of medication increases concentrations of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine by monoamine oxidase enzyme inhabitation. MAOI's
This class of medications are useful for short term treatment of anxiety disorders, psychosomatic disorders, insomnia, and alcohol withdrawal. Anxiolytics (Benzodiazepines)
Name three Benzodiazepines/Anxiolytics medications alprazolam(Xanax) diazepam (Valium) lorazepam (Ativan)
Anxiolytics/Benzodiazepines should not be taken long term because? it can cause tolerance and physical dependence
Some side effects of Anxiolytics/Benzodiazepines are? Bizarre behavior, depression, ataxia, hallucinations, tremors, fall risk, sensitivity to sunlight
Patients should be taught to avoid ________________ juice when taking Benzodiazepines/Anxiolytics. Grapefruit
Patients should be taught to use good oral hygiene, when taking phenytoin/Dilantin because it can? Cause Gingivitis (inflamed gums)
________________________, is the only OTC drug proven safe and effective in helping fight fatigue and drowsiness. Caffeine
Name two OTC caffeine meds. Nodoz and Vivarin
Cafcit is prescription Caffeine also known as? Caffeine Citrate
Abrupt discontinuation of caffeine can cause what withdrawal signs? Headaches, Anxiety, Irritation, Nervousness, Dissiness
CNS stimulants accelerates activity, so some side effects would be? Nervousness, insomnia, irritability, tachycardia, palpations, and hypertension. Unusual one to watch for is DILATED PUPILS W/PHOTOPHOBIA.
Antidepressants treat patients with various types of? Depression disorders
Some foods can cause Hypertensive crisis while taking MAOIs. You would teach a pt to avoid what types of foods? Yogurt, cheeses, sour cream, CHICKEN LIVERS, MEAT TENDERIZERS, CORNED BEEF, salami, pepperoni (aged meats)
These types of medications are used to reduce the number or severity of seizures in patients with epilepsy. Anticonvulsants
Antidepressant medication, that involves increasing concentrations of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the neuronal synapse by in habiting the MAO enzyme that degrades or breaks down these neurotransmitters. MAOI's known as Monamine Oxidase Inhibitors
Name three MAOI, meds "Hint" No Popular Meds! Nardil--No Parnate--Popular Marplan --Meds
MAIOs cannot be give until ________ weeks after __________, and other interacting drugs have been discontinued. 2 weeks, tricyclics
Side effects Of MAOIs are? Headache, stiff neck, tachycardia, HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS(can be fatal), chest pain, insomnia
Antidepressants have 5 catagories, what are they? "Hint"AuntieD's, Tricycles Move So Slow, Help! Tricyclic antidepressant, Monamine Oxidase Inhibitors(MAOIs), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors(SSRIs), Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors(SNRIs) and Heterocyclic antidepressant
_____________, are considered to be the first-line medications for treatment of depression. They are preferred because they have fewer side effects. SSRIs - Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Two SSRI medications are called? "remember the generic names end in "ine or pram" PROZAC/fluoxetine ZOLOFT/sertraline
SSRIs selectively block the reabsorption of the____________________. Neurotransmitter serotonin
Some of the side effects of SSRI include....(one unusual) "Hint" Sexy Steve Ran In SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, INSOMNIA, anorexia, diarrhea, anxiety, dizziness
SNRIs are antidepressant meds that inhibit the reuptake of both __________,and _______________. Serotonin and norepinpehrine
SNRI medication names are? Cymbalta/duloxetine Effexor/ venlafaxine
SNRIs are also effective in patients with chronic pain associated with_________, ______________, and _____________________. Neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia and musculoskeletal pain.
Heterocyclic antidepressants(2nd generation) have different effects on ______________, ________________, and ____________. Dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin
Side effects of Heterocyclic antidepressants are? Drowsiness, Dry mouth, weight gain, anxiety, insomnia, PRIAPISM or IMPOTENCE-Discontinue the drug
Anxiolytics/Benzodiazepines are minor __________________. "Anxious Ben!" Tranquilizers
Anxiolytics are used for SHORT-TERM treatment of what? Anxiety disorders, some psychosomatic disorders, insomnia, and alcohol withdrawal
Antianxiety medications are benzodiazepines such as? Xanax/alprazolam Ativan/lorazepam
Antianxiety/Anxiolytic medications should not be taken long-term because? It can cause tolerance and physical and psychological dependence.
Sudden withdrawal of prolonged use of Anxiolytic meds may result in? Seizures, agitation, psychosis, insomnia, and gastric distress
Side effects of Benzodiazepines are? Bizarre Behavior, Depression, ATAXIA, EXTRAPYRIDAMAL
You should not drink grapefruit juice with what kind of meds? Anxiolytics/Benzodiazepines *drinking grapefruit with these can increase the effects
alprazolam=Xanax lorazepam=Ativan diazepam =Valium Are what kind of medications? Benzodiazepines/Anxiolytics (these end in "am")
SSRIs block or inhibit serotonin ______________. reabsorption
Phenothiazine antipsychotics work by blocking _____________receptors. Dopamine
Tricyclic antidepressants potentiation of norepinephrine and serotonin activity by _______________their reuptake. Blocking
What Alters Dopamine release? amantiADine "A-alters D-dopamine"
Lithium is used to treat patients with ________________disorders. Bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorders are treated ______________with lithium. Prophylaxis
When a patient is being treated with Lithium, a maintenance dose is found by monitoring ____________ ______________. Blood levels
What is the lithium level range? 0.8 to1.2
Patients taking lithium may experience extreme __________ and drink a lot of fluids, resulting in frequent urination or______________. Thirst Polyuria
Some side effects of Lithium include? Cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, THIRST AND POLYURIA, tremors, thyroid problems.
There are ____________ and _____________ antipsychotics. typical and atypical
Zyprexa is a ______________antipsychotic, and that block both serotonin and dopamine receptors. This results in less potential for_________________effects. Atypical Adverse effects
What is the number 1 drug problem in the US? Alcohol
Prolonged use or chronic drinking causes liver____________, ____________, ___________________, ____________________. liver damage, pancreatitis, gastritis, ulceration, and hemorrhage
What is the treatment for alcohol poisoning? treat the cerebral edema with DIURETICS treat electrolyte imbalance with IV FLUIDS Threat the delirium with BENZODIAZEPINGS SUCH AS LIBRIUM
What are the signs of alcohol poisoning? Respiratory problems, vomiting, seizures, cerebral edema, electrolyte imbalance, and delirium
Consists of the combination of all four of the following phenomea: tolerance, psychological dependence, physical dependence, and withdrawal syndrome with psychological effects. This is a sign of________________ _______________. Drug addiction
Drug ___________, consists of psychological dependence only. habituation
What prescription drugs are most often abused by medical personnel? Hydrocodone, oxycodone, and BDZs
Name some of the street names for methamphetamines. Crystal, crank, ice, meth, speed
Symptoms of chronic amphetamine abuse include. PHOTOPHOBIA, AMNESIA, emotional liability, paranoid syndrome, anorexia
Side effects of marijuana use. REDUCED TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND SPERM COUNT, lethargy, apathy, impaired learning
Side effects of cocaine use. euphoria, agitation, hypertension, chest pain, tachycardia, CARDIAC FAILURE, POSSIBLE VIOLENT BEHAVIOR, respiratory failure, STROKE, PERORATED NASAL SEPTUM from prolong use.
________________ drugs produce bizarre mental reactions and distortion of physical senses. Hallucinogens
______________, is an illegal drug of a different type, is potent BDZ that is approved for use in Central and South America for ethanol withdrawal. (Not approved in the US) ROHYPNOL=Flunitrazepam
Illegal drug sometimes use to offset cocaine withdrawal, has the title "date rape drug" to inducing amnesia. ROHYPNOL
What is the role of the Medical Personnel in combating drug abuse? Knowledge of psychotropic drugs, action and side effects Giving competent care to those under the influence of drugs in a nonjudgmental way. Recognizing drug abuse and making appropriate referrals, Record keeping of controlled stocks of drugs.
These are used to reduce the number or severity of seizures in patients with epilepsy. Anticonvulsants
A recurrent paroxysmal disorder of brain function characterized by sudden attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity or sensory impairment. Epilepsy
Some of the causes of epilepsy can include ____________________, _______________, __________________, and ________________. Cerebral trauma, intracranial infection, intoxication, or hypoglycemia
Tonic-colonic seizures are also known as __________________ seizures or __________________ seizures. Grand mal Generalized
________________________ seizures are characterized by an abrupt loss of consciousness and falling, with tonic extension of trunk and extremities, followed by alternating contractions and relaxation of the muscles. Tonic-clonic
Theses seizures usually last 2-5 minutes and urinary and fecal incontinence may occur. Tonic- clonic
Seizures that are prolonged or so frequent that the patient does not regain consciousness between seizures, this condition is called? status epilepticus
_________________ ____________________, is considered to be a true neurologic emergency. status epilepticus
The treatment to "status epilepticus is________________________. IV lorazepam( Ativan) administered slowly.
Absence epilepsy is characterized by ____________________loss of ___________ with NO falling or non-convulsive and usually occurs___________. 10-20second (loss) Consciousness Children
_____________________, are the most common childhood seizure disorder. Febrile seizures
Febrile seizures may signify a serious underlying acute infection such as, ___________ or _____________________. Sepsis or Bacterial meningitis
Partial seizures are also known as ____________________ ____________. psychomotor epilepsy
_______________seizures (also known as temporal lobe seizures), the onset is limited to one cerebral hemisphere and involves no loss of consciousness. Partial seizures
_________________ seizures affect only one side of the body. Some patients my have mixed seizure patterns combining more than one type. It is important to observe/report type and length Unilateral seizures
A chronic neurological disorder characterized by fine, slowly spreading muscle tremors, rigidity, and generalized slowness of movement called bradykinesia. "shuffling gait" Parkinson's Disease (PD)
Is there a cure for Parkinson's Disease? What would be the treatment? There is no cure, treatments would be palliative( relieve symptoms without curing.)
___________ _______________ are commonly used to delay the onset of levodopa-caused motor complications in Parkinson's Disease. Dopamine Agonists
_______________________ ______________, are used to treat tremors associated with PD. Anticholinergic Agents
_______________________, act in the body by slowing the body systems down except the heart which has to work harder to keep things going. They act by drying or decreasing all body secretions. Anticholinergics
These drugs dry up systems. Anticholinergics
Side effects of Anticholinergics include? "Remember they dry up" Dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, tachycardia
Anticholinergics are used to treat what? Parkinson-like tremors associated with long-term use of antipsychotics.
Patients taking antiparkinsonian drugs should by taught several weeks of drug therapy may be required before ________________ is seen. benefit
Restless leg syndrome is a ___________________ ________________ disorder characterized by a distressing urge to move the legs. Sensorimotor neurologic
Restless leg syndrome is treated with what meds? Neurontin, opioids and benzos
_____________________, aggravates RLS symptoms. Antihistamines
Medications used to treat Alzheimer's Disease include: Rivastigmine(Exelon) Galantamine(Razadyne) Memantine(Namenda)
What is the drug of choice to treat patients with bipolar disorder? Lithium
Created by: Ashleybit4