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Biology Chapter 3

What are 5 reasons that carbon is particularly well suited to be the backbone of organic molecules? 1) it forms both covalent & ionic bonds 2) its covalent bonds are irregularly arranged in 3 dimensional space 3) its covalent bonds are the strongest bonds 4) it can bond to atoms of a large number of other elements 5) all bonds it forms are polar
What are hydrocarbons? Organic compounds consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
What are isomers? One of two or more chemical compounds having the same chemical formula but different structural formula
Why do isomers have different properties? Because they have different structures
How else do isomers differ from one another? They do not have the same physical or chemical properties, and have different common names
How can cells distinguish between isomers? One can be more biologically active and others are not
What are the 3 types of isomers? 1) structural isomers 2) geometric isomers 3) enantiomers
What is a structural isomer? a type of chemical formula that shows the spatial arrangement of the atoms in a molecule
What is a geometric isomer? One of two or more chemical compounds having the same arrangement of covalent bonds but differing in the spatial arrangement of their atoms of groups of atoms
What is an enantiomer isomer? two isometric chemical compounds that are mirror images of each other
What are hydrocarbons? An organic compound, non-polar molecule, or functional group composed of only hydrogen and carbon atoms
What are hydrophobic interactions? The tendency of hydrophobic substances to cluster together due to strong cohesive interactions among surrounding water molecules
What is a functional group? A group of atoms that determine the types of chemical reactions and associations in which the compound participates
Functional groups form associations with what kinds of bonds? They form associations with hydrogen and ionic bonds, with other molecules
Polar and ionic functional groups are considered to be __________________ Hydrophilic
Why are polar and ionic functional groups considered to be hydrophilic? Polar and ionic functional groups are considered to be hydrophilic because they associate strongly with polar water molecules
What are the 4 major groups (or polymers) of organic compounds found in living systems? 1) carbohydrates 2) lipids 3) proteins 4) nucleic acids
In carbon containing inorganic molecules, carbon is bonded to something other than __________________ and ___________________ Carbon and hydrogen
The ____________atom forms ______________ with a greater number of different elements than does any other type of atom Carbon, bonds
The addition of _______________ containing atoms of other elements especially nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur can profoundly change the properties of an organic molecule. Chemical groups
How many valence electrons does carbon have? 4
Individual carbon atoms can form up to how many bonds with other atoms? 1, 2, 3, and 4
What three forms can hydrocarbon molecules exist as? Branched chains, unbranched chains, and rings
Isomers have the same molecular formula, but different _______________ Structures
What kind of isomers are compounds that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms? Structural isomers
True or false: Some chemicals could only be made of living things because they possess a vital, special character unique to life. False
How many bonds can carbon form? 4
What shape are carbon single bonds? Pyramid shapes
What shape are carbon double bonds? Linear
What shape are carbon triple bonds? Linear
Why are some building blocks of large molecules called functional groups? Because they have specific functions and atomic groups
What is the molecular formula for carboxyl group? -COOH
What is the following functional group: O II C R^OH A carboxyl group
What is located in the middle of a carboxyl group? O II R^OH A carbon
What do carboxyl groups do with their hydrogens? They give up their hydrogen to form things that are carboxylic
What does a carboxyl group and an amino group form? They form amino acids
What is the following functional group? O II R^R A carbonyl group
Where can a carbon be located in a carbonyl group? In the middle or end
If the carbon of a carbonyl group is located in the middle, what is it called? A keytone
If the carbon of a carbonyl group is located at the end, what is it called? An aldehyde
What is the following functional group? H I C--H R^H A methyl group
How many hydrogens are in a methyl group? 3
What is the molecular formula for a methyl group? -CH3
What are the differences between the three types of isomers? Structural isomers differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms, geometric or Cis-trans isomers differ in the spatial arrangement of atoms, enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other
Can cells distinguish between the three isomers? How? Yes, because some are more biologically active
What is the following functional group? . . N -H / \ R H An amino group
What is the key element that is needed to make an amino group? Nitrogen
What is the following functional group? O II P / I \ O- O- O- A phosphate group
Which functional group is on the end of ATP? Phosphate group
What is the following functional group? O / \ R H A hydroxyl group
What is a polymer? Large macromolecules that are made up of monomers
What are monomers? The building blocks of polymers
How are polymers built? Through dehydration
What is a dehydration reaction? The removal of water H2O, forming a covalent bond in the middle (peptide bond)
Each time you want to attach an amino acid, you must ____________ a water. Remove
What is a hydrolysis reaction? Breaking down proteins and making amino acids by adding water
How are proteins built? Through dehydration reaction
What two functional groups do amino acids always have? Carboxyl and amino groups
Proteins are one of the 4 main ____________ (organic compounds) Polymers
Through what reaction are nucleic acids built? Dehydration reaction
What are the two classes of nucleic acids? RNA and DNA
RNA and DNA are considered to be _______________ Polymers
What are 3 things that a nucleotide of DNA is made of? Base, sugar, and a phosphate
What are some differences in the structures of an amino group? The R group, as well as the charge
Is amino acid considered to be a polymer or a monomer? A monomer
What are proteins made up of? Amino acids, which are monomer
Nucleic acids are ____________ or nucleotides. Polymers
How many amino acids are needed for a human to survive? 20
Amino acids are joined by _________________ Peptide bonds
How does a peptide bond form? Through what reactions? Peptide bonds form through condensation/dehydration, as well as the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another
When are amino acids formed? When the OH molecule on the end joins with a H from the amino group
What are the four levels of protein structure? 1) primary 2) secondary 3) tertiary 4) quaternary
How would you describe a primary structure of proteins? It refers to the identity and order/sequence of the amino acids Ex. sickle cell anemia is caused by a single amino acid substitution in the protein hemoglobin. EVEN SMALL CHANGES HAVE A MAJOR IMPACT!
How would you describe the secondary structure of proteins? It refers to the folding of a protein due to hydrogen bonds which form between amino and acid groups on different amino acids within a protein
What are the two common shapes of a secondary structure protein? Alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets
What are alpha-helices? A shape of a secondary structure protein that looks like spirals
What are beta-pleated sheets? A shape of a secondary structure protein that looks like an accordion-folded paper
What holds the helices and neighboring sheets together? Hydrogen bonds
How would you describe the tertiary structure of protein? It refers to the folding of a single amino acid chain due to its interactions between the R groups of its amino acids with each other or the solvent.
Tertiary structures are affected by _________________ . For example, non-polar R-groups get pushed by water toward each other Polarity
How would you describe the quaternary structure? It refers to the bonding between multiple amino acid chains to form a single functional unit.
True or false: Hemoglobin is an example of a quaternary structure. True
What is unique about quaternary structure? It exhibits secondary and tertiary folding
True or false: Some proteins fold themselves, based on random movements followed by hydrogen bonding or ionic attraction True
Some proteins require guidance from _________________ to fold correctly. Chaperone
What is being looked at about proteins in reference to Domains? The fact that different parts have different functions. For example, you have two domains where one part of a protein may connect with another protein & another may connect with DNA. Or one type of domain where two different proteins will bind with DNA
In reference to proteins, what is denaturation? When unnatural conditions, such as unusual temperatures, pH, solvents, may cause them to lose their natural shape.
What is an example of denaturation? Paperclips folded or unfolded and tangled. Also, the protein albumin in eggs undergoes denaturation & loss of solubility when the egg is cooked
What are lipids classified by? Their solubility
What are lipids? Organic molecules/polymers which are insoluble in water but are soluble in non-polar solvents
What are the functions of lipids? The capture energy, store energy, role in structure, signals and communicates between or within cells, and protection
What are Caretenoids, chlorophyll, and retinal? Several pigments that are lipids
Which of the three lipid pigments (Caretenoids, chlorophyll, and retinal) allow the capture of the sun's energy by some organisms, which can be stored or used later? Caretenoids and chlorophyll
What does retinal do with the energy in light? It captures the energy in light and indirectly leads to a signal in a nerve, allowing vision
What is the most common lipid? Triglyceride
How are lipid triglycerides made? Condensation/dehydration reactions between 3 fatty acids and glycerol
What are the 3 fatty acids? 1) saturated fat 2) mono-unsaturated fat 3) poly-unsaturated
What functional group is part of the fatty acid? Carboxyl
Are lipids hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Hydrophobic
Triglycerides consist of _______________ and ______________. Oils and fats
What are the subunits of triglycerides? Glycerol and fatty acids
What are the three main parts of a fatty acid? 1) Hydrocarbon chain 2) Methyl group 3)
Why do lipids tend to by hydrophobic? Because they are non-polar, and they have little oxygen and more carbon and hydrogen.
What are the functional groups of a fatty acid? A long hydrocarbon chain, a carboxyl group at one and, and a methyl group at the other end
What are the functional groups of the glycerol? 3 Hydroxyl groups
A fatty acid that has single carbon bonds are considered saturated or unsaturated? Saturated (solid at room temperature)
A fatty acid that has a double carbon bond are considered to be saturated or unsaturated? Unsaturated (liquid at room temperature) ex. transfat
How does a triglyceride form between glycerol and 3 fatty acids? 3 fatty acids have to bond with a glycerol molecule through dehydration synthesis
What is the difference between a triglyceride and a phospholipid? Triglyceride contains 3 fatty acids and a glycerol, while phospholipid contains hydrocarbon chain followed by a phosphate group and only two fatty acids
True or false: The head of the phospholipid is hydrophilic. True
Is the fatty acid tail of the phospholipid hydrophilic or hyrophobic? Hydrophobic
How would you describe an amphipathic molecule? A phospholipid with both a hydrophobic end and a hydrophilic end
Unlike lipids, hydrophilic functional groups typically contain _____________ atoms, which make them more soluble in water. Oxygen
What functional group forms bridges to help stabilize a protein's quaternary structure? Sulfhydryl
What is responsible for the alpha-helical structure of proteins? Hydrogen bonds
If tyrosine and isoleucine undergo condensation, where does the new bond form? Between carbon of the carboxyl group ad the nitrogen of the amino group
How would you describe the tertiary structure of a protein molecule? A three-dimensional shape of an individual polypeptide chain
What is the purpose of molecular chaperones To assist in the folding of other molecular proteins
What type of protein accelerates the thousands of different chemical reactions that take place in an organism? Enzymes
What is the purpose of regulatory proteins? To control the expression of specific genes
What linkage is paired with a nucleic acid? Phosphodiester linkage
What is the difference between DNA and RNA? DNA comprises the genes, while RNA is a direct participant in the process of protein synthesis
Why is ATP important in living organisms? It can transfer some of its energy to other organisms
What organic molecule is the primary structural component of cell membranes? Phospholipids
Which organic compound is not only responsible for energy storage but also can provide thermal insulation? Lipids
Why are hydrocarbons considered hydrophobic? The covalent bonds between hydrogen and carbon re nonpolar
Amyloplasts are organelles that store ______________. Starch
What carbohydrate energy storage molecule is found in animal liver and muscle cells? Glycogen
What is a property of unsaturated fats? They are liquid at room temperature
Most organic molecules are flexible because the carbon-to-carbon bond has ________________________. Has freedom of rotation
What are two functional groups that are polar? Carbonyl and hydroxyl
______________ is the most abundant carbohydrate on Earth. Cellulose
One end of a phospholipid is hydrophobic because it is composed of ____________________. Fatty acids
Within the structure of RNA, what nitrogenous base pairs with cytosine? Guanine
DNA's sugar-phosphate backbones are joined by what type of connections? Phosphodiester linkages
Which type o polypeptide structure has a helical coil with elastic proteins? Secondary
Which part of human blood is an example of a protein with a quaternary structure? Hemoglobin
When a carboxyl group releases a hydrogen, the molecule becomes _____________ charged. Negatively
A polymer can be broken down into a monomer with the addition of water through a process called _______________. Hyrolysis
How many amino acids can make up a protein? 20
True or false: Some fatty acids are essential nutrients to humans and must be consumed because the body cannot synthesize those fatty acids. True
Many monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids remain as liquids at roo temperature because the covalent bonds within their structure are bent, preventing _________chains from aligning to one another. Hydrocarbon
Created by: eve_garcia



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