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Chapter 2 Vocab

Chemistry in Life

atom the smallest basic unit of matter
element one particular type of atom; it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means
compound a substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio
ion an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
ionic bond forms through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond forms when atoms share a pair of electrons
molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
hydrogen bond an attraction between a slightly positive atom and a slightly negative atom. often oxygen and nitrogen
cohesion the attraction among molecules of a substance
adhesion the attraction among molecules of different substances
solution a mixture of substances that is the same throughout- it is a homogeneous mixture
solvent the substance that is present in the greater amount and that dissolves another substance
solute the substance that dissolves in a solvent
acid a compound that releases a proton
bases compounds that removes the H* ions from a solution
pH a solution's acidity, or H* ion concentration, is measured by this scale
monomer each subunit in the complete molecule
polymer a large molecule, or macromolecule
carbohydrates molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and they include sugars and starches
lipids nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils and cholesterol
fatty acids chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
protein a polymer made of monomers called amino acids
amino acids molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
nucleic acids polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides
chemical reaction change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds
reactants the substances changed during a chemical reaction
products the substances made by a chemical reaction
bond energy the amount of energy that will break a bond between two atoms
equilibrium is reached when both the reactants and products are made at the same rate
activation energy the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start
exothermic a chemical reaction that releases more energy than it absorbs
endothermic a chemical reaction that absorbs more energy than it releases
catalyst a substance that decreases activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction and, as a result, also increases the rate of a chemical reaction
enzymes catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
substrates the specific reactants that an enzyme acts on
Created by: martinl21