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biochem

biochem chp2

TermDefinition
monosaccharides (simple sugars) are single-chain or ring structures containing from 3 to 7 carbon atoms.
carbohydrates a group of molecules that includes sugars and starches, represents 1-2% of cell mass. Are an easily used energy source for the body.
disaccharide (double sugars) is formed when 2 monosaccharides are joined by dehydration synthesis.
isomer molecules with the same molecular formula but their atoms are arranged differently giving them different chemical properties.
polysaccharides polymers of simple sugars linked together by dehydration sythesis.
glycogen the storage carbohydrate of animal tissue.
starch is storage carbohydrate formed by plants.
lipids are insoluble in water but dissolve readily in other lipids and in organic solvents such as alcohol and ether.
triglycerides (neutral fats) commonly known as fats when solid or oils when liquid. Large molecules consisting of 100s of atoms.
fatty acids linear chains of carbon and hygrogen atoms(hydrocarbon chains) with an organic acid group at one end.
glycerol is a modified simple sugar(sugar alcohol).
saturated fatty acid chain with only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms.
unsaturated (monounsaturated or polyunsaturated) fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms.
phospholipids Diglycerides with a phosphorous- containing group and two, rather than three, fatty acid chains.
Protein the basic structural material of the body, 10-30% of cell mass.
eicosanoids diverse lipids chiefly derived from a 20- carbon fatty acid found in all cell membranes.
amino acids these molecules are the building blocks of proteins.
peptide bond bond joining the amine group of one amino acid to the acid carboxyl group of a second amino acid with the loss of a water molecule.
macromolecules Large complex molecules containing from 100 to over 10,000 subunits.
fibrous proteins (structural proteins) are extended and strand-like. most have tertiary or quaternary structure. stable
golbular proteins (functional proteins) are compact spherical proteins that have at least tertiary structure. Water soluble, chemically active molecules.
denatured A protein unfolds and looses its specific 3-dimentional shape because the hydrogen bond breaks from pH dropping or temp rising above normal.
enzymes globular proteins that act as biological catalysts.
active site the part of the enzyme where catalytic activity occurs.
substrate the substance on which an enzyme acts.
apoenzyme the protein portion of a functional enzyme.
primary structure the linear sequence of amino acids composing the polypeptide chain.
nucleic acids composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, and is the largest molecule in the body.
nucleotides the structural units of nucleic acids.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the primary energy-transferring molecule in cells and it provides a form of energy that is immediately usable by all body cells.
Created by: chasi