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Cell Structures

Cell Structure & Functions

Unicellular One Cell - Ex: Bacteria, some Protists: ameba, euglena, and paramecium, & some Fungi such as yeast
Multi-cellular More than one cell - Ex: Some Protists: Algae/Seaweed, some Fungi: Mushrooms, Mold, and Mildew, all Plants, & all Animals
Eukaryotic Cell •Larger cells than bacterial cell •Exist in some single celled organisms, but mostly multi-cellular (Found in animals, plants, protists, and fungi) •Have a nucleus to hold cell’s DNA •Many organelles
Prokaryotic Cell (Bacteria) •Single cell organisms •No nucleus, but do have DNA •Organelles float in cytoplasm
Organelles One of the small membrane bound bodies in a cell’s cytoplasm that are specialized to perform a specific function.
Cell Membrane Physical Description •Protective layer covers cell’s surface •Outermost structure in cells that do not have cell wall •Layer just inside cell wall for cells that have cell wall •Made of proteins, lipids, and phospholipids
Cell Membrane Function •Controls materials moving in and out of cell •Protective barrier that encloses cell •Separates cell’s contents from cell’s environment Found in all types of organisms
Cytoplasm Physical Description Jelly-like fluid located inside the cell
Cytoplasm Function Organelles float in this fluid Found in all types of organisms
Cell Wall Physical Description •Outermost structure in plant cells •Plants and algae cell walls made of cellulose •Fungi cell walls are made of a sugar called chitin.
Cell Wall Function Rigid structure that gives support to a cell Found in Plants, Fungi, & Eubacteria
Nucleus Physical Description •Large organelle in eukaryotic cells •Contains the cell’s DNA or genetic material
Nucleus Function •Control center or brain of the cell •DNA controls information on how to make proteins and other needed materials for cells to grow, live, and reproduce Found in Plants, Animals, Protists, & Fungi
Mitochondria Physical Description •Peanut shaped organelle inside cytoplasm •Contains two layers of membranes •Cells that need more energy have more mitochondria.
Mitochondria Function •Power source of the cell •Breaks down sugar to produce energy •Energy stored in substance known as ATP •Where cellular respiration occurs Found in Animals, Protists and Fungi
Chloroplasts Physical Description •Green oval shaped sac •Contains chlorophyll in disk shaped thylakoids
Chloroplasts Function •Where photosynthesis takes place •Plants and algae make food using energy from sun Found in Plants, some bacteria, and some protists
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Physical Description •Folded membranes in the cytoplasm •Contains many tubes and passageways•Usually located near the nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Function •Transportation system of the cell •Proteins, fats, and other materials are made here •Substances move through ER to other parts of cell Found in Plants, Animals, Protists and Fungi
Ribosomes Physical Description •Smallest and most numerous organelle •Grain-like structures float in cytoplasm or attached to membranes
Ribosomes Function •Proteins are made inside ribosomes •Proteins are made of amino acids Found in all types of cells
Golgi Complex (Apparatus...Bodies...) Physical Description •Similar to endoplasmic reticulum •Passageways inside cytoplasm •Located further away from the nucleus than the ER
Golgi Complex (Apparatus...Bodies...) Function •Packages and distributes proteins •Receives lipids (fats) and proteins from ER •Changes them to do different jobs Found in Plants, Animals, Protists, & Fungi
Lysosomes Physical Description Round shaped structures mainly present in animal cells.
Lysosomes Function •Contain digestive enzymes that destroy worn out or damaged organelles •Get rid of waste materials •Protect cells from bacteria and viruses (Decomposer of the cell) Found in Plants, Animals, Protists, & Fungi
Vacuole Physical Description •Small sacs in animal cells •Larger sacs in plant cells.
Vacuole Function •Stores water and other liquids •Large vacuoles in plants help support the cell •Causes plants to wilt when vacuole loses water Found in Plants, Animals, Protists, & Fungi
Created by: kb0429057
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