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Growth and Metabolis

Ch 9: Growth and Metabolism

TermDefinition
Acidophile a microorganism that grows at acidic pHs below 4
Active site the region of an enzyme where the substrate binds
Adenosine triphosphate a molecule in cells that provides most of the energy for metabolism
Aerobe an organism that uses oxygen gas for metabolism
Aerobic respiration a set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into cellular energy in the form of ATP.
Anabolism an energy-requiring process involving the synthesis of larger organic compounds from smaller ones
Anaerobe an organism that does not require or cannot use oxygen gas for metabolism
Anaerobic respiration the production of ATP where the final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule other than oxygen gas
ATP synthase the enzyme involved in forming ATP during electron transport
Barophile a microorganism that lives under conditions of high atmospheric pressure
Catabolism an energy liberating process in which larger organic compounds are broken down into smaller ones
Cellular respiration the process of converting chemical energy into cellular energy in the form of ATP
Citric acid cycle a metabolic pathway essential for ATP production during cellular respiration
Coenzyme a small, organic molecule that forms the nonprotein part of an enzyme molecule
Cytochrome a compound containing protein and iron that plays a role as an electron carrier in cellular respiration and photosynthesis
Electron transport a series of proteins that transfer electrons in cellular respiration to generate ATP
Enzyme a reusable protein molecule that brings about a chemical change while itself remaining unchanged
Extreme acidophile an archaeal organism living at an extremely acidic pH
Extremophile a microorganism that lives in extreme environments
Facultative referring to an organism that grows in the presence or absence of oxygen
Fermentation a metabolic process that converts sugar to acid, gases and/or alcohol
Glycolysis a metabolic process in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate with a net gain of two ATP molecules
Halophile an organism that lives in environments with high concentration of salt
Hyperthermophile a prokaryote that has an optimal growth temperature above 80 degrees C
Mesophile an organism that grows in the temperature ranges of 20-40 degrees C
Metabolism the sum of all biochemical processes taking place in a living cell
Photosynthesis a biochemical process in which light energy is converted into chemical energy
Product a substance or substances produced in a chemical reaction
Psychrophile an organism that lives at cold temperature ranges of 0-20 degrees C
Psychrotroph an organism that lives at cold temperature ranges of 0-30 degrees C
Substrate the substance or substances upon which an enzyme acts
Thermophile an organism that lives at high temperature ranges of 40-90 degrees C
Created by: drmicro