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Unit 1 ch 3

Organic compound All organic compounds associated w life contain hydrogen and carbon atoms
Macromolecules Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids
Hydrocarbons Organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
Functional groups a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound.
Polymer A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
Monomer The repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer are smaller molecules
Enzymes Specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions
Dehydration reaction Monomers are connected by a reaction by which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other WITHOUT a water molecule
Hydrolysis Polymers are disassembled to monomers WITH water
Monosaccharide Have a molecular formula that are some multiple of the unit CH2O
Carbohydrates Include both sugars and polymers of sugars
Disaccharide Consists of two monosaccharides, joined by a glycosidic linkage
Glycosidic linkage A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
Polysaccharide Are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides
Starch A polymer of glucose monomers, as granules within cells
Glycogen A polymer of glucose
Cellulose A major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells
Lipids They mix poorly with water ; they are hydrophobic
Fat Constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules
Fatty acid Has a long carbon skeleton usually 16 or 18 carbon atoms in length
Triacylglycerol 3 fatty acid molecules joined to glycerol by an ester linkage
Saturated fatty acid Saturated fatty acid no double bonds between carbon atoms composing a chain, then as many hydrogen atoms as possible are boned to the carbon skeleton
Unsaturated fatty acid Has one or more double bonds with one fewer hydrogen atom on each double-bonded carbon
Phospholipid Major constituents of cell membranes
Catalyst Chemical agents that speed up a chemical reaction
Peptide bond A covalent chemical bond that links a polypeptide
Denaturation When the weak chemical bonds and interactions within a protein are destroyed causing a protein to unravel and lose its native shape
Polynucleotide Nucleic acids are macromolecules that exist as polymers
Nucleotides Each polynucleotide consists or monomers
Pyrimidine One six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
Purines Larger w a 6-membered ring fused to a five - membered ring
Created by: Lohi