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Intro to Cells

TermDefinition
Atom smallest basic unit of matter
Molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds; not necessarily a compound
Organelle membrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell
Cell basic unit of life
Tissue group of cells that work together to perform a similar function
Organ group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions
Organ System two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions
Organism any individual living thing
Biomolecules molecules that occur naturally in living organisms and include macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids
Carbohydrates molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars and starches
Lipids nonpolar molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes fats and oils
Proteins polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids
Nucleic Acids polymer of nucleotides; the genetic material of organisms
RNA nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis
DNA molecule that stores genetic information in all organisms
Double Helix model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder
Nucleotide monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base
Nitrogen Base a nitrogen-containing organic compound that makes up nucleic acids
Phosphate a molecule containing a phosphorus atom with 4 oxygen atoms bonded to it.
Deoxyribose Sugar the sugar found in deoxyribonucleic acid.
Hydrogen Bond attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom
Asexual Reproduction process by which offspring are produced from a single parent; does not involve the joining of gametes
Sexual Reproduction process by which two gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced
Feedback Mechanisms information that is compared with a set of ideal values and aids in maintaining homeostasis
Positive Feedback control system in which sensory information causes the body to increase the rate of change away from homeostasis
Negative Feedback control system for homeostasis that adjusts the body’s conditions when the conditions vary from the ideal
Buffer a solution that resists changes in pH when an acid or base is added to it
Inorganic Solvent a solvent that does not contain carbon
Solute substance that dissolves in a solvent and is present at a lower concentration than the solvent
Solvent substance in which solutes dissolve and that is present in greatest concentration in a solution
Solution mixture that is consistent throughout; also called a homogeneous mixture
Solubility how easily something is dissolved
Reactant substance that is changed by a chemical reaction
Product substance formed by a chemical reaction
Turgidity water pressure applied to plant cells to keep them rigid
Hydration the act of keeping enough water in your system
Hydrophilic water loving
Hydrophobic water fearing
Evolution change in a species over time; process of biological change by which descendents come to differ from their ancestors
Created by: Mr. Hope