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Chapter 2

vocab biology

TermDefinition
atom smallest basic unit of matter
element substance made of only one type of atom that cannot be broken down by chemical means
compound substance made of different elements that are bonded together in a particular ratio
ion atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
ionic bond chemical bond formed through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond chemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds; not necessarily a compound
hydrogen bond attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom
cohesion attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion attraction between molecules of different substances
solution mixture that is consistent throughout; also called a homogeneous mixture
solvent substance in which solutes dissolve and that is present in greatest concentration in a solution
solute substance that dissolves in a solvent and is present at a lower concentration than the solvent
acid compound that donates a proton (H+) when dissolved in a solution
base compound that accepts a proton (H+) when dissolved in a solution
pH measurement of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentration in solution
monomer molecular subunit of a polymer
polymer large, carbon-based molecule formed by monomers
carbohydrate molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars and starches
lipid nonpolar molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes fat and oils
fatty acid hydrocarbon chain often bonded to glycerol in a lipid
protein polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids
amino acid molecule that makes up proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
nucleic acid polymer of nucleotides; the genetic material of organisms
chemical reaction process by which substances change into different substances through the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
reactant substance that is changed by a chemical reaction
product substance formed by a chemical reaction
bond energy amount of energy needed to break a bond between two particular atoms; or the amount of energy released when a bond forms between two particular atoms.
equilibrium condition in which reactants and products of a chemical reaction are formed at the same rate
activation energy energy input necessary to initiate a chemical reaction
exothermic chemical reaction that yields a net release of energy in the form of heat
endothermic chemical reaction that requires a net input of energy
catalyst substance that decreases activation energy and increases reaction rate in a chemical reaction
enzyme protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms
substrate reactant in a chemical reaction upon which an enzyme acts
Created by: OttenK21