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Chapter 2 Vocab

Biology Chapter 2 Vocabulary

atom smallest basic unit of matter
element substance made of only one type of atom that cannot be broken down by chemical means
compound substance made of atoms of different elements that are bound together in a particular ratio
ion atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
ionic bond chemical bond formed through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond chemical bound formed when two atoms share one or more pairs if electrons
molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds; not necessarily a compound
hydrogen bond attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom
cohesion attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion attraction between molecules of different substances
solution mixture that is consistent throughout; also called a homogeneous mixture
solvent substance in which solutes dissolved and that is present in greeters concentrations in a solution
solute substance that dissolves in a solvent and is present at a lower concentration than the solvent
acid compound that donates proteins (H+) when dissolved in a solution
base compound that accepts a protein (H+) when dissolved in solution
pH measurement of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentration in solution
monomer molecular subunit of a polymer
polymer large, carbon-based molecule formed by monomers
carbohydrate molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; includes sugars and starches
lipid nonpolar molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; includes fats and oils
fatty acid hydrocarbon chain often bounded to glycerol in a lipid
protein polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids
amino acid molecule that makes up proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur
nucleic acid polymer of nucleotides; the genetic material of organisms
chemical reaction process by which substances change into different substances through the breaking down and forming of chemical bonds
reactant substance that is changed by a chemical reaction
product substance formed by a chemical reaction
bond energy amount of energy needed to break a bond between two particular atoms; or the amount of energy released when a bond forms between two particular atoms
equilibrium condition in which reactants and products of a chemical reaction are forms at the same rate
activation energy energy that imputes necessary to imitate a chemical reaction
exothermic chemical reaction that yields a net release of energy in the form of heat
endothermic chemical reaction that produces its own heat through metabolic processes
catalyst substance that decreases activation energy and increases reaction rate in a chemical reaction
enzyme protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms
substrate reactant in a chemical reaction upon which an enzyme acts
Created by: AlyssaH2021