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Chapter 2 Vocab

atom the smallest basic unit of matter
element one particular type of atom, and it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means
compound a substance made of atoms of different elements bounded together in a certain ratio
ion an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
iconic bond a bond that forms through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond a bond that forms when atoms share a pair of electrons
molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
hydrogen bond an attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom, often oxygen or nitrogen
cohesion the attraction among molecules of a substance
adhesion the attraction among molecules of different substances
solution a mixture of substances that is the same throughout - it is a homogeneous mixture
solvent the substance that dissolves another substance
solute a substance that dissolves in a solvent
acid a compound that releases a proton - a hydrogen ion(H+) - when it dissolves in water
bases compounds that remove H+ ions from a solution
pH the scale that measures a solution's acidity, or concentration
monomer each subunit in the complete molecule
polymer a large molecule, or macromolecule, made of many monomers bonded together
carbohydrates molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and they include sugars and starches
lipids nonpolar molecules that indlude fats, oils, and cholestrol
fatty acids chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
protein a polymer made of monomers called amino acids
amino acids molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
nucleic acids polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides
chemical reactions reactions that change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds
reactants the substances changed during a chemical reaction
products the substances made by a chemical reaction
bond energy the amount of energy that will break bonds in molecules of oxygen and glucose
equilibrium what is reached when both the reactants are made at the same rate
activation energy the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start
exothermic term used to describe a chemical reaction that releases more energy than it absorbs
endothermic term used to describe a chemical reaction that absorbs more energy than it releases
catalyst a substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction and, as a result, also increases the the rate of the chemical reaction
enzymes catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
substrates the specific reactants that an enzyme acts on
Created by: KowitzE21