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IGHS Winkels

Biology Chapter 1

Purpose of Science To investigate and understand the natural world
Observations Use sight, smell, touch, sound and taste (the 5 senses)
Quantitative Observations Numbers- obtained by counting, or measuring
Qualitative Observation Descriptive-involve the 5 senses
Good Scientists' Characteristics Base decisions on Reality/They are curious, open-minded and solve problems.
PHEACR Problem/Hypothesis/Experiment/Analyze/Conclusion/Repeat
Experiment A test under controlled conditions that is made to gather evidence and examine the validity of a hypothesis
Control Group Used to compare results with experimental group
Independent Variable The variable you can manipulate or change
Dependent Variable The variable that responds (the outcome)
Constant Part of the experiment that is not changed /the rest of the experiment is compared to it
Analyze Data is collected on CHARTS and organized on GRAPHS
Repeat All valid scientific experiments MUST be repeatable
Spontaneous Generation Hypothesis that living organisms develop from nonliving matter *mice come from grain
Francesco Redi Italian physician/created hypothesis for the appearance of maggots/flies produce maggots
Redi's Contributions to Science Maggots form when flies come in contact with meat/Spontaneous Generation did not occur
John Needham English/Spontaneous Generation could only occur under the right conditions/Boiled gravy, cooled, sealed, and waited-findings support Spontaneous Generation
Anton Leeuwenhoek Perfected a simple microscope which he used to discover small living things called "animalcules"
Lazzaro Spallanzani Italian/Needham hadn't heated samples properly/Nonliving gravy did not produce living things
Louis Pasture French/convinced scientists that Spontaneous Generation was not correct
Theory An explanation of an aspect of the natural world that is supported by an abundance of evidence and has yet to be disproven
Living Things Made up of cells/reproduce/universal genetic code/grow & develop/use energy/respond to their environment/maintain a stable internal environment/as a group, change over time
Cell Smallest unit of life
Sexual Reproduction Two cells from different parents unite to produce a new organism
Asexual Reproduction New organism has a single parent
DNA Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
Metabolism How fast or slow an organism uses its energy
Homeostasis The process by which the internal conditions stay relatively stable (the same)
Evolve A group, or population of organisms change over time *Mastodons to elephants
Levels of Organization Molecules/Cells/Groups of Cells/Organism/Population/Community/Ecosystem/Biosphere
Molecules Groups of atoms
Groups of Cells Tissues/organs/organ systems *muscle tissue, stomach, blood
Organism Individual living thing
Population Group of organisms of one type (species) that live in the same area
Community Populations that live together in a defined area
Ecosystem Community and its non-living surroundings
Bioshpere The part of the Earth that contains all ecosystems
Created by: Winkels
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