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indian geography

resources , energy and industry

Minerals are homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure. Hardest mineral is diamond and softest mineral is talc. What is the economically explorable minerals as extracted from Earth when mixed with other elements? Ores
Bauxite ores are found as residual mass of weathered material found in rocks. Placer deposits of gold, silver, platinum, etc are found in alluvial deposits in sand of valley floor and base of hills. Which mineral is found predominantly in ocean beds? Manganese Nodules
Open-pit mining is used for coal extraction, heavy metals are explored by loads and tunnel mining, natural oil and gas are extracted by digging wells. Where is rathole mining activities are found? North-Eastern India (Meghalaya)
Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and other non-metallic minerals, sedimentaryrocks of western and eastern flanks of peninsula (Gujarat and Asom) has petroleum deposits. Where is the largest reserve natural Krishna-Godavari Basin
Rajasthan has reserves of non-ferrous minerals, coastal sand of Kerala has deposits of thorium places. Hydrocarbons are found in Himalayan belt. Which region in India is devoid of any mineral resources? North Indian Plain
Ferrous minerals are iron, chromite, manganese and nickel, etc, and account for about three-fourth of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. It provides a strong base for development of metallurgical industries. Which type of : minera Non-ferrous Minerals
Mica, asbestos, etc, are non-metallic minerals, petroleum, coal, natural gas and nuclear minerals are mineral fuels and gypsum, phosphate and pyrites are fertilizer minerals. Which type of minerals are chromite, magnesite and graphite, etc, are? Refractory Minerals
India is abundance with iron ore and rich is good quality iron ores. Magnetite is the finest iron-ore having iron concentration upto 70% and used extensively in electrical industries. Haematite is the second finish iron ore having iron content (50-60% Fourth
Odisha became the leading producer of minerals in the country followed by Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat, Chhattishgarh and Jharkhand.
Where the largest proportion of minerals are found? Offshore
Chhota Nagpur belt contains 100% reserve of 1kyanite, 93% iron ore, 84% coal, 70% chromite, 70% mica and is the most resource rich region.
Western belt of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra is famous for Non-ferrous Metals
Among the states, Karnataka has the largest reserves of iron ore followed by Odisha which is the largest iron ore producer. India has the largest iron ore reserves in Asia. The Bailadila mine under the National Mineral Development Corporation is the l Chhattishgarh
Manganese is mainly used in manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy and also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints. Which is the largest producer of manganese? Odisha
India’s bauxite deposits are mainly in Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and Bilaspur-Katni region of Chhattishgarh. Which state is the largest bauxite producing state in India? Odisha
Durg-Bastar Chandrapur belt provides iron ore to export to Japan and South Korea viaVishakhapatnam port Kudremukh mines located in Western Ghats. It is a 100% export unit exports through Mangalore port. Ratnagiri in Maharashtra has very high quality Marmagao Port
India is deficient in the reserve of copper. Copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics. Balaghat mines on Madhya Pradesh produces highest India’s copper. Other mines are Singhbhum of Jharkhand and Khetri in Rajasthan. Which state has th Rajasthan
Bauxite is the major source of alumina, which later converts to alluminium.
Bauxite are formed by the decomposition of rocks rich in alluminium silicates. It is used in mettallurgy, . aeronautics and electricity appliances. Which rock is associated with bauxite ores? Lateritic Rocks of Tertiary Period
Chromite metal has mixture of iron and chromium. Chitradurga and Hassan in Karnataka, Ratnagiri and Bhandara in Maharashtra and Singhbhum in Jharkhand. India is the third largest chromite producing country of the world. Which state has the largest pr Odisha
Iron (Metallic Mineral) Kemmangundi, Sandur and Hospet (Karnataka) Barbil-Koira (Odisha), Bailadila and Dalli-Rajhara (Chhattisgarh), North Goa (Mines)
Manganese (Metallic Mineral) Karnataka, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. (Mines)
Chromite (Metallic Mineral) Odisha, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh (Mines)
Copper(Metallic Mineral) Malanjkhand Belt (Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh), Khetri-Singhana Belt (Jhunjhun) Singhbhum (jharkhand) (Mines)
Bauxite(Metallic Mineral) Odisha, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Maharashtra Chhattisgarh (Mines)
Gold(Metallic Mineral) Kolar and Hutti (Karnataka) Ramgiri in Anantapur (Andhra Pradesh) (Mines)
Limestone(Non-Metallic Mineral) Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan) Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh. (Mines)
Dolomite (Non-Metallic Mineral) Madhya Pradesh, Chhattishgarh, Odisha, Gujarat Karnataka, West Bengal(Mines)
Asbestos (Non-Metallic Mineral) Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka(Mines)
Gypsum (Non-Metallic Mineral) Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir(Mines)
Graphite (Non-Metallic Mineral) Kalahandi, Bolangir (Odisha) and Bhagalpur (Bihar) (Mines)
India is the largest producer of mic? iri the world. Muscovite and biotite are ores of mica. in Bihar, Nellore and Khamam in Andhra Pradesh and Udaipur and Bhilwara of Rajasthan are major mica regions. Which state is the largest producer of mica? Jharkhand
Diamond is the purest form of carbon and hardest element on Earth. Uranium in India are found in rocks of Dharwar and Archean series and is a nuclear material. Recently one of the biggest uranium reserve of the world is found in Andhra Pradesh, name it. Jhummalapalle
Gypsum is found in sedimentary rocks and used in production of fertilizer and Rajasthan is the largest producer.
India posses largest deposits of thorium reserve the world. It is extracted from monazite sands which are formed by disintegration of pre-apambrian rocks. Where monazite sand is found in India? Kerala Coast
Coal is called black gold and . Gondwana coal is mature whereas tertiary coal is young. India ranks third in the world . Jharkhand has the largest reserve of coal. Which state leads in production? Chhattishgarh
Digboi(Refinery) Asom(State)
Trombay (Refinery) Maharashtra(State)
Vishakhapatnam(Refinery) Andhra Pradesh(State)
Noonmati (Refinery) Asom(State)
Barauni (Refinery) Bihar(State)
Koyali (Refinery) Gujarat(State)
Haldia (Refinery) Gujarat(State)
Bongaigaon(Refinery) Asom(State)
Mathura (Refinery) Uttar Pradesh(State)
Narnaligarh (Refinery) Asom(State)
Jamnagar(Refinery) Gujarat(State)
Panipat (Refinery) Haryana(State)
Mangalore (Refinery) Karnataka(State)
Tatipaka (Refinery) Andhra Pradesh(State)
Nagapattinam(Refinery) Tamil Nadu(State)
Uranium(Atomic Mineral Mine) Jadugoda (Jharkhand), Caya (Bihar), Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
Thorium (Atomic Mineral Mine) Kerala, Jharkhand, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan
Zirconium(Atomic Mineral Mine) Kerala coast and alluvial rocks of Ranchi and Hazanbagh
Beryllium(Atomic Mineral Mine) Nellore (Andhra Pradesh), Sikkim, Jammu-Kashmir
. Lignite is called brown coal and is the lower grade coal found in Rajasthan, Neyveli of Tamil Nadu. Peat is the first stage of coal formation having less carbon content. Coal is a weight lose material. Where Anthracite coal is found in India? Jammu-Kashmir
Petroleum is found mostly offshore and recently in Sarasvati and Rajeswari onshore field in Barmer district of Rajasthan. Jawaharlal Nehru called Ankleswar oilfield the fountain of prosperity. Which is called liquid gold? Petroleum
Natural gas is an important clean energy and mostly used in power and fertilizer industry. . Krishna- Godavari basin now discovered with largest reserve of gas. Which state is the largest production of gas? Assam
Thermal energy and Hydel energy are major conventional sources of energy Solar and wind energy, etc, are also called renewable or replenishable energy. Which type of energy is the largest consumption in India? Thermal Energy (Conventional)
Thermal energy is produced with the help of coal, petroleum, and natural gas and contribute about 65% of total electricity produced in the country. Name the state which has largest installed capacity and generation capacity. Maharashtra
Ultra Mega Power Plants (UMPPs) are initiated by central government with capacity of 4000 MW or more through special purpose vehicles scheme. Name the UMPP awarded to Tata Company in Gujarat? Mundra
. Asia’s first solar pond is located in Bhuj, Gujarat and Tirupati temple has the largest solar cooker in the world. Now, where in Gujarat a 2000 ha solar park is set-up that is world’s largest photovoltaic power station? Charanka Village (Patan)
First hydro power stationin India is Sivasamudram in Karnataka.
Himalayan rivers has higher potential of hydroelectric generation than peninsular rivers. Himalaya states and North-Eastern states solely depend on hydro- electricity. Which is the largest source of electricity in Sikkim? Hydroelectricity
Punjab(State) Bhatinda(thermal Plant)
Delhi(State) Indraprastha(thermal Plant)
Rajasthan(State) Kota(thermal Plant)
UttarPradesh (State) Obra, Singrauli(thermal Plant)
Gujarat (State) Ukai(thermal Plant)
Chhattiihgarh (State) Korba, Bhillai(thermal Plant)
Maharashtra(State) Uran, Chandrapur, Dabhol(thermal Plant)
Andhra Pradesh(State) Ramagudarri, Vijayawada(thermal Plant)
TamilNadu(State) Ennore, Tuticorin, Neyveli(thermal Plant)
Bihar (State) Barauni (gas) (thermal Plant)
Jharkhand (State) Bokaro(thermal Plant)
Odisha (State) Talcher, Rourkela(thermal Plant)
West Bengal (State) Titagarh, Durgapur(thermal Plant)
Assam(State) Namrup, Bongaigaon(thermal Plant)
Jammu-Kashmir (State) Pampore(thermal Plant)
Tripura (State) Rokhia(thermal Plant)
In 1992, ONES was converted into Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources. When it was renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy? 2006
Wind energy is a viable renewable energy source in coastal areas of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET), founded at Chennai . Which state is the largest producer of Wind energy? Tamil Nadu
Geothermal energy is produced at Tatapani and Suruguja in Chhattisgarh, Puga in Ladakh, Jammu- Kashmir. Geothermal energy is explored by using Earth’s internal heat energy. In which region in Himachal Pradesh, geothermal energy is explored? Manikaran (Kullu)
First wind farm was installed in Tamil Nadu followed by Maharashtra and Gujarat. Largest wind energy power plant has been established in Muppandal Perungudi near Kanyakumari. Which state has maximum potential for installation of wind energy? Gujarat
Tarapur(Power Station) Maharashtra ( State)
Rawatbhatta(Power Station) Raiasthan ( State)
Kalpakkam (Power Station) Tamil Nadu ( State)
Narora (Power Station) Uttar Pradesh ( State)
Kakrapara (Power Station) Gujarat ( State)
Kaiga (Power Station) Karnataka ( State)
Kudankulam (Power Station) Tamil Nadu ( State)
Banswara (Power Station) Rajasthan ( State)
Nuclear power contributes to little over 3% of total power generation in India. Nuclear power generated using uranium and thorium. Atomic Energy Institute at Trombay was set-up in 1954 and then renamed as Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in 1967.
The plants normally set-up near water sources because a great quantity of water is used for cooling purpose, Where the first heavy water plant was set-up in India? Nangal (1962)
Now Industry sector shares about 28% of GDP and provides 22% of employment. First industrialisation in India was started with cotton textiles industry in Bombay in 1854. Where is the first jute textile industry was established? Rishra, Kolkata (1853)
India’s first paper mill was started at Ballygunj near Kolkata and steel was first manufactured by West Bengal . The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) started Jamshedpur . Which Five Year Plan first promote industrialisation in India? Second
Small and medium scale industries contributes about 40% of total exports in the country. In which sector, SMEs are flourished in India? Manufacturing Sector
First cotton textilemile was set-up at Mumbai, first woollen textile mill was set-up in Kanpur. . Which state has largest woolen industry? Punjab
India is the largest producer and second largest exporter of jute after Bangladesh. Most of the jute industries are located along the bank of Hughly river. When National Jute Policy was formulated? 2005
Punjab has largest woollen textile ,India has well developed silk industry because of availability of all five commercially viable sillks. Which state in silk production? Karnataka
India though ranks sixth in production of crude steel but is the largest producer of spong iron. Which region in India has maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? Chhota Nagpur Plateau
First iron and steel unit on modern line was established in 1830 at Porto Novo in Tamil Nadu. What are the raw materials for steel industry? Iron ore, Coking Coal, Limestone and Manganese
Raurkela Steel Plant in Odisha was built-up with cooperation of Germany Steel Plant in Bhilai, Chhattishgarh and Bokaro, Jharkhand were established with cooperation of USSR. Which country help India in building up steel plant at Durgapur, West Bengal? United Kingdom
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) was established at Bhopal during Second Five Year Plan. Which plan constitute Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)? Fifth Five Year Plan
Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (Industries in Transportation Sector) West Bengal(Institute Place)
Diesel Locomotive Works (Industries in Transportation Sector) Varanasi(Institute Place)
Tata Engineering and Locomotive Works(Industries in Transportation Sector) Jamshedpur(Institute Place)
Integral Coach Factory (Industries in Transportation Sector) Perambur, Chennai(Institute Place)
Rail Coach Factory(Industries in Transportation Sector) Kapurthala(Institute Place)
Bharat Earth Movers (Industries in Transportation Sector) Bengaluru(Institute Place)
A New Coach Factory (Industries in Transportation Sector) Roe Bareilfy(Institute Place)
Wheel and Axle Plant (Industries in Transportation Sector) Bengaluru and Chhapra(Institute Place)
Hindustan Shipyard Limited(Industries in Transportation Sector) Vishakhapatnam(Institute Place)
Cochin Shipyard Limited (Industries in Transportation Sector) Cochin(Institute Place)
Garden Reach Ship Building and Engineers Limited (Industries in Transportation Sector) Kolkata(Institute Place)
Mazagaon Dock (Industries in Transportation Sector) Mumbai(Institute Place)
Goa Shipyard Limited (Industries in Transportation Sector) Vasco-de-Gama(Institute Place)
ABG Shipyard (Industries in Transportation Sector) Magdalla, Dahej(Institute Place)
Bharati Shipyard(Industries in Transportation Sector) Ratnagiri(Institute Place)
Defence Vehicle (Industries in Transportation Sector) (Shaktiman truck Jabalpur and Nissan jeep) (Institute Place)
Bajaj Tempo(Industries in Transportation Sector) Pane(Institute Place)
Hindustan Motors (Industries in Transportation Sector) Kolkata(Institute Place)
Ashok Leyland Motors (Industries in Transportation Sector) Chennai(Institute Place)
Public sector enterprises has at least 51% government share and are opened to public investment at different degree of permission. Which special status was offered to CPSEs in 2010? Maharatna
Name the Maharatna CPSE not involved in energy sector? BHEL andSAIL
India is having 3.34 million km of road network, second largest in the world. About 65% of freight and 80% passenger traffic is carried by roads. What is National Highways’ contribution to road traffic? 40%
National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) was constituted in 1988 and Golden Quadrilateral (GQ), North-South and East-West Corridor. Which major metropolitan cities are joined by GQ? Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata
Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) has two diagonal connectivity Delhi-Chennai and Mumbai-Howrah Highway. Including diagonals GQ length is 10122 km. What is the length of GQs? 5846km
Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) has port connectivity highways that connects 12 major ports National Expressway Authority of India (NEAI) is in the process of setting up in the line of NHAI to maintain expressways. What is the total length of expressway? 942km
State Highways are roads linking important cities and other centres in a state. Maharashtra has the largest length followed by Gujarat.. Which authority is dedicated for road construction in border areas? 18 Border Road Organisation (BRO)
NH-1 and NH-2 are collectively called Grand Trunk Road.
Jawahar Tunnel is situated in the NH- 1A. The highest road way in India is Manali-Leh highway. Golden Quadrilateral passes through 13 states. Shortest national highway is NH-47A in Kerala. Which is the longest national highway in India? NH-7 (Varanasi to Kanyakumari)
Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor passes through six states including Delhi, Rajasthan gets highest length followed by Gujarat. This project also incorporate mega industrial zones of about 200-250 km length. Which country assist India in this project? Japan
. First railway line was c’onstructed from Mumbai to Thane in April 16,1853. 7500 stations. When railways were nationalised as one unit, Indian Railways? 1951
Konkan Railways is run by a separate corporation other than Indian Railways and four states, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala are involved in the network but it does not passes through Kerala. Name the terminals of the Konkan Railways? Mangalore to Roha
Country’s first sea-bridge was constructed in 2009 ecting Bandra to Warlie in Mumbai. recently Chhnatrapati Sivaji Terminal in Mumbai has been given world heritage status. Where a bullet train, fastest train, is proposed to run in India? Mumbai to Ahmedabad
North-South Corridor stretches from Srinagar to Kanyakumari including Cochin to Salem and East-West Corridor joint Silcahr to Porbandar. Where North- South and East-West Corridors meet each other? Jhansi
Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India (DFCCIL) is a special purpose vehicle introduced in 2006 . Which country funded this corridor? Japan
. Delhi Metro was India’s first modern metro started in 2002 and now six metros are operating in India, last one is Ahmedabad Metro. Which is India’s first privately owned and operated metro opened in 2013? Sapid Metro Rail (Gurgaon)
AWhich organisation provides helicopter services to North-Eastern hilly regions, remote areas and oil sectors? Pawan Hans
NH-1(National Highways) New Delhi-Amritsar(route)
NH-2(National Highways) Delhi-Kolkata(route)
NH-3(National Highways) Agra-Mumbai(route)
NH-4 (National Highways) Thane-Chennai(route)
NH-5 (National Highways) Kolkata-Chennai(route)
NH-6(National Highways) Kolkata-Delhi(route)
NH-7 (National Highways) Varanasi-Kanyakumari (Longest) (route)
NH-8 (National Highways) Delhi-Ahmedabad(route)
NH-9 (National Highways) Mumbai-Vijayawada(route)
NH-10 (National Highways) Delhi-Fazilka(route)
NH-15 (National Highways) Pathankot-Samakhiali(route)
NH-17(National Highways) Panvel-Edapally(route)
NH-22 (National Highways) Ambala-Shipkila(route)
NH-31 (National Highways) Barhi-Guwahati(route)
NH-37(National Highways) Panchratna-Saikhowaghat(route)
NH-47 (National Highways) A Kudanoor-Wellington Island (Smallest) (route)
Mountain Railways of India include Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, Kalka- Shimla Railway, Matherari Hill Railway and Kangra Valley Railway. What is the speciality of these railways? UNESCO Heritage Sites
Northern (Railway Zones) Delhi(Headquarter)
North-Eastern (Railway Zones) Gorakhpur(Headquarter)
North-East(Railway Zones) Frontier Maligaon (Guwahati) (Headquarter)
Eastern (Railway Zones) Kolkata(Headquarter)
South-Eastern (Railway Zones) Kolkata (Headquarter) (Garden Reach)
19 South Central(Railway Zones) Secunderabad(Headquarter)
Southern (Railway Zones) Chennai(Headquarter)
Central (Railway Zones) Mumbai(Headquarter)
Western (Railway Zones) Mumbai CST(Headquarter)
South-Western (Railway Zones) Hubli(Headquarter)
North-Western (Railway Zones) Jaipur(Headquarter)
West-Central (Railway Zones) Jabalpur(Headquarter)
North-Central(Railway Zones) Allahabad(Headquarter)
South-East Coast(Railway Zones) Bilaspur(Headquarter)
East Coast(Railway Zones) Bhubaneswar(Headquarter)
East-Central (Railway Zones) Hajipur(Headquarter)
Kolkata(Railway Zones) Metro Kolkata(Headquarter)
. Country has 13 major ports and 200 minor ports. Petroleum, Oil and Lubricant (POL) has largest share in cargo followed by container and iron-ore and coal. Where is the recent Setusamudram Shipping Canal Project is proposed to be constructed? Across Palk Strait
Inland Waterways Authority of India has been constituted in 1986 as a statutory body for maintaining inland waterways. Now total six waterways in India. Which is the sixth national waterway in India? Lakhipur to Bhanga (Barak River)
India has 13 major ports and about 200 minor ports. Largest port of India is Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai and the largest natural port is in Vishakhapatnam. Which is a major tidal port also called Offspring of Partition? Kandla Port
National Waterway-1 is the longest water way on Ganga system from Haldia to Allahabad . NW-2 is on Brahmaputra river from Dhubri to Sadiya. Udyogmandal Canal and Champakara Canal jointly form a national waterway. Name it. NW-3
NW-4 in East Coast on Godavari and Krishna rivers including canals between Kakinada and Puducherry. . National Waterway-5 is on Brahamani and Mahanadi delta. Which state is benefitted by this waterway? Odisha
Mundra port is a newly developed minor port in Gujarat .Recently two more ports are proposed by central government to be set-up at Sagar island in West Bengal and Durga Rajapatnam in Vellore, Andhra Pradesh. Which is the busiest port in India? Mumbai Port
In 2005, central government has proposeda major connectivity project to connect allmajor ports and 185 minor ports through GoldenQuadrilateral and Express Highways. What is thename of the project? Sagar Mala Project
Kojkata (East Coast Port) Oldest Port, reverine port
Paradip (East Coast Port) In Odisha, handles iron-ore
Chennai (East Coast Port) All weather port
Vishakhapatnam (East Coast Port) Natural port, Serves Bhilai and Rourkela Steel Plant[ Tuticorin(East Coast Port)
Ennore(East Coast Port) First Corporatised Major Port, Chennai
Haldia (East Coast Port) West Bengal, on Hughly river
Mumbai(West Coast Ports) Handle maximum traffic
Kandla (West Coast Ports) Tidal port
Marmagao (West Coast Ports) Naval base
New Mangalore (West Coast Ports) All weather port
Cochin(West Coast Ports) Major natural port in Wellingdon Island
Jawaharlal Nehru Port (West Coast Ports) Nhava Sheva Port (Sophisticated modern port)
As per census 2011, Which state has highest rural population? Uttar Pradesh
Which state has highest urban population? Maharashtra (13.5%)
Created by: dhanalakshmi