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What is the scientific method in order? Observation, question, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion
What is scientific fact? Discrete, small bits of information based on observation.
What is scientific law? Describes how nature acts under certain conditions without explaining why.
What is scientific theory? Explains how nature works. General set of principles that has explanatory power.
What is the hierarchical organization of life in order? Atom, molecules, organelles, cells, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, biosphere
What are the eight things that define life? Energy, response to the environment, constant internal environment, inherited information, reproduction, one or many cells, evolve from other living things: have a common ancestor, highly organized.
What is matter? Anything that takes up space and has mass.
What is an atom made out of? And outer electron shell and a nucleus.
What are the three subatomic particles with their charges? Protons – positive, neutrons – neutral, electrons – negative
What is an element? One kind of atom packed together
What determines the atomic number? The number of protons
What determines the atomic weight? The number of protons and neutrons added together
What is the most abundant element? Oxygen
What causes an isotope? When an atom has a different number of neutrons in the nucleus.
How are covalent bonds formed? When two atoms share electrons
What are ionic bonds? When an atom gives away electrons and another atom is there to accept electrons
What percentage of earths surface is ocean water? 71%
What percentage of the human body weight comes from water? 66%
What are hydrophilic compounds? Compounds that interact with water, water loving compounds, ionic compounds like sodium chloride.
What are hydrophobic compounds? Compounds that do not interact with water, water fearing compounds, non-polar covalent molecules.
What is an acid? An acid is a substance that releases H ions when put in water.
What is a base? A base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions in water.
What does pH stand for? Power of hydrogen.
What levels of pH are acids and bases? Acids: 0–7 bases: 7–14
What is organic chemistry? A branch of chemistry that study compounds with carbon as the central element.
What are functional groups? A group of atoms that gives a special property to a carbon-based molecules.
Is carboxyl or hydroxyl an alcohol? Hydroxyl
What are the monomers and polymers for nucleic acids? Nucleotides and nucleic acids
What are the monomers and polymers for carbohydrates? Monosaccharides and polysaccharides
What are the monomers and polymers for lipids? Trick question there are none.😝
What are the monomers and polymers for proteins? Amino acids and polypeptides.
What is hydrolysis? To split with water
What is dehydration synthesis? The opposite of hydrolysis.
What are carbohydrates made of? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
True or false: sucrose is a monosaccharide. False
True or false: starch is a polysaccharide. True
True or false: animals store glycogen as sugar in the liver. True
True or false: cellulose is found in the exoskeleton of insects. False
What are lipids made out of? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen but with more hydrogen compared to oxygen.
True or false: lipids are insoluble in water. True
What are the four types of lipids? Glycerides, steroids, phospholipids, and waxes
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? Saturated fatty acids do not have double bonds and are solid at room temperature.
What makes up a phospholipid? One glycerol +2 fatty acids +1 phosphate group +1 nitrogen containing group.
Where are waxes usually found? On the surface of plants as cuticles.
How many amino acids are there? 20
What are the levels of protein structure? Primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary
What are lipoproteins? Lipids and proteins
Which has a higher level of lipids: LDL or HDL? LDL
What are glycoproteins? Carbohydrates and proteins
True or false: glycoproteins make up most of the cell structure receptors. True
What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic acid
What does RNA stand for? Ribonucleic acid.
What are the four types of nucleotides? Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine
What nucleotide is specific to RNA? Uracil
What three parts make up a nucleic acid? A phosphate group, sugar, a base.
What connects the parts of nucleic acids? Hydrogen bonds
What is a nutrient? A substance, contained in food, that does one of these three: provide energy, provide a structural building block for the body, help regulate a physical process in the body.
What are the six classes of nutrients? Water, vitamins, carbohydrates, minerals, proteins, lipids
What are minerals? Chemical elements needed by the body either to form bodily functions or to facilitate chemical reactions.
True or false: all minerals are elements. True
What are vitamins? Chemical compounds that are needed in strictly small quantities to facilitate chemical reactions.
What is a nutritional calorie? The amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1000 g of water by 1°C.
True or false: each gram of carbohydrates and proteins yield 9 cal of energy while each gram of lipids yield 4 calories. False
How many of the 20 amino acids needed for protein synthesis can be produced by the body? 11
Which of these two are indigestible carbs: starches or fibers? Fibers
What are empty calories? Calories not accompanied by vitamins or minerals.
True or false: fibers cause the cholesterol level in the blood to rise and heighten the glycemic load. False
Which form of lipids are healthier: saturated or unsaturated? Unsaturated
Which kind of fats should be avoided? Trans fats
True or false: food pyramids tell you exactly how much food you should eat. False: food pyramids give you a guideline.
Created by: Lauren sternes



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