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609 Phar exam 1

Which substances are most commonly prescribed or categorized as controlled substances? Narcotics, and some sedatives or tranquilizers that can only be ordered by someone with a special license
What is a severe form of allergic reaction that is life threatening. The patient develops severe shortness of breath, may stop breathing, or may have cardiac collapse. Anaphylactic Response
What is the reason that drugs may fall within the 5 major categories of control? Potential for abuse or addiction
What are the four basic processes involved in drug utilization in the body? absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
1 cup = how many mL? 240 mL
What is OU? oculi uterque (both eyes)
What type of drug name is often followed by the symbol ®, which indicates that the name is registered to a specific drug maker or owner and no one else can use it? Trade name
A now order is different than a stat order in that the nurse has how much time to give the medication? 1.5 hours
What are severe symptoms or problems that arise because of the medication. An example would be that the patient might develop severe gastric bleeding from an ulcer caused by aspirin. Adverse Reaction
which schedule contains drugs that have an abuse potential that may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychologic dependence.Examples: glutethimide, aspirin with codeine Schedule 3
What/Whom is responsible for writing prescription? Physicians, dentists, and, in some states, nurse practitioners, nurse midwives, nurse anesthetists, and physician assistants.
What word defines the use of drugs in the treatment of disease? Pharmacotherapeutics
If the effect of two drugs taken at the same time is greater than the sum of the effects of each drug given alone, the drugs have what type of an effect? This is often seen when individuals are exposed to pollutants and toxins. Synergistic effect
What/Whom is responsible for the functions of administering drugs? The authority to administer medications is clearly specified for LPNs/LVNs, RNs, and nurse practitioners in the state nurse practice act.
What is the way a drug enters the body and passes into the body fluids and tissues? Absorption
What/Whom is responsible for the function of dispensing drugs? The pharmacy or there are automated medication dispensing systems. They include narcotics plus also stock medicines that nurses withdraw by password or fingerprint instead of a key system. One such system is the Pyxis® MedStation™ 3500 system.
1 tablesoon = how many mL? 15 mL
What is the protocol where patients bring their medications to the hospital? A physician's order is required before any medication may be given in the hospital. Without an order, hospitalized patients cannot take even their own OTC medicines brought along to the hospital.
What are drugs that attach at receptor site and activate the receptor; the drug has an action similar to the body's own chemicals, and the chemical response is usually good. Agonists
What refers to anxiety, stress, or tension that is felt if the patient does not have the medication? Psychologic dependence
What refers to the ways that drugs move by means of circulating body fluids to their sites of action in the body? Distribution
What type of drug name are usually long and hyphenated, and they describe the atomic or molecular structure? Chemical name
Who owns the patient's chart? The chart belongs to the hospital. It is not the property of the patient, the nurse, or the physician. It is the legal record of the patient's stay in the hospital.
What word defines what the body does to the drug? Pharmacokinetics
What takes place when the therapeutic goal is achieved.? The drug does what it is supposed to do. An example would be temperature reduction after taking aspirin. Desired Effect
What is the tendency of the molecules of a substance (gas, liquid, or solid) to move from a region of high concentration to one of lower concentration? Diffusion
What are the Patient Variables Influencing Drug Actions: Body weight, age, illness, pregnancy and breast-feeding, genetics, cumulative drug effects, individual psychology and dependence
What was created by Congress to watch over the testing, approval, and marketing of new drugs? Congress created the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
What is the protocol where a controlled substance is spilled or accidentally contaminateed? Two nurses must sign the inventory report and describe the situation.
Under the Controlled Substance Schedule which schedule contains drugs which have no currently accepted medical use in the United States. Lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.Examples: hashish, heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), Schedule 1
What is the diffusion of fluid through a semipermeable membrane; the flow is primarily from the less dense solution to the more dense solution? Osmosis
What components must a medication order have? patient's full name, date, name of drug, route of administration, dose, frequency, duration, and signature of prescriber.
What type of medication order is a one-time order to be given immediately? STAT Order
What are reactions that are the opposite of what would be expected? Paradoxical Reaction
How many gtt are in a mL? 15 gtts
What is it called wAdditive Effecthen two drugs are given together, the combined effect of the drugs is equal to either that of the single more active component of the mixture or the sum of the effects of the individual drugs. Additive Effect
Which medication route is through topical [skin], sublingual [under the tongue], buccal [against the cheek], or inhalation [breathing] administration? Percutaneous
What is a severe form of allergic reaction that is life threatening. The patient develops severe shortness of breath, may stop breathing, or may have cardiac collapse? Anaphylactic Response
What type of medication order is to be given as needed based on nurse's judgment of safety and patient need? PRN Order
Convert 2 teaspoons to mL 10 mL 1 tsp = 5 mL = 2x5=10 mL
What type of name is given by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Sometimes this name is similar to the brand or chemical name. The first letter of the official name is also capitalized? Official name
Which type of medication order indicates that the drug is to be administered until discontinued or for a certain number of doses? STANDING order
Drug products considered to be identical with respect to their active ingredients are known as what? Generic equivalents
Under the Controlled Substance Schedule which schedules contains drugs which gave abuse potential that may lead to limited physical or psychologic dependence? Schedules 4 and 5. Schedule 5's potential for abusel is Low compared with IV
Which type of medication order is a one-time order to be given at specified time? SINGLE order
What is your first duty in the event that you have given a medication errorand have given the wrong medication to a client? 1. assess the patient. 2. notify physisican and follow any orders the physician gives, 3. notify nursing supervisor, 4. continue to assess the patient 5. document the incident
What is OD? oculus dexter (Right Eye)
One teaspoon = how many mL? 5 mL
What is a strange, unique, or unpredicted reactions. An example would be blood in the urine caused by aspirin. This is rare. Idiosyncratic Response
Convert 2100 mL to liters 2.1 L
What are the major points of excretion of drugs from the body? GI tract, Kidneys, Lungs, Sweat, Breastmilk
What refers to the physiologic need for a medication to relieve shaking, pain, or other symptoms? Physical dependence
What is the name the drug manufacturer uses for a drug, and it is the same in all countries? Generic
What are drugs that attach at drug receptor site, but only a slight chemical action is produced? Partial Agonist
What is OS? oculus sinister (left eye)
Strange, unique, or unpredicted responses are called what? idiosyncratic responses.
Convert 0.04 g to mg 40 mg
Convert 5000 cc to liters 5 L
Dr. orders Tylenol elixir 1 tbsp. How many mL? 15 mL
What are the 6 rights of medication administration? Right drug, Right time, Right dose, Right patient, Right route and Right documentation.
What is the definition of a drug's half life? The time it takes to remove 50 % of a drug from the body
What are mild but annoying responses to medication. An example would be stomach pain caused by aspirin. Side effects
What is an antigen-antibody reaction. The body develops hives, rashes, itching, or swelling of the skin. A rash or shortness of breath is occasionally seen in patients allergic to aspirin. An allergic response
Convert 3 gtts to mL 0.2 mL 1 gtt = 15 mL = 3 divided by 15 = 0.2 mL
What route of of administration may give the client the most rapid absorption? Medications injected IV into the bloodstream have the fastest action
Which medication route is directly into dermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular tissue, epidurally into the cerebrospinal fluid, or into the bloodstream through intravenous [IV] injections? Parenteral
What word is defined as Likely to produce malformations or damage in the embryo or fetus? Teratogenic
What is increased reaction to a drug; often used to describe an allergy? Hypersensitivity
Defne drug receptor sites A specific site in the body where a medication bonds chemically. Drugs take part in chemical reactions that change the way the body acts.
What is the process called when medications have to be broken down into smaller usable parts, primarily in the liver, through a series of complex chemical reactions until they become chemically inactive? Biotransformation
What are the 3 classes of drugs unde the Food and Drugs Act? nonprescription drugs, prescription drugs, and restricted drugs (controlled substances).
What are drugs that attach at drug receptor site, but then remains chemically inactive; no chemical drug response is produced but the drug prevents activation of the receptor. Antaganist
which schedule contains drugs which have an abuse potential that may lead to severe psychologic or physical dependence. Examples: amphetamines, meperidine, methadone, methaqualone, morphine, pentobarbital, oxycodone (Percocet), secobarbital? Schedule 2
What is a process that attempts to time the drug action so that it occurs when that action is most needed by the body? Chronotherapy
What refers to all the methods to be used for treatment of disease. In addition to drug therapy, this may include plans for special diets; use of hot packs, whirlpools, or ultraviolet lights; and counseling, biofeedback, or psychotherapy. Therapeutic regimen
How many gtt = 1 teaspoon? 60
in 1961, which drug was given to control nausea and vomiting in pregnant women, causing severe fetal malformations? Thalidomide
What occurs when two drugs mixed together in a syringe produce a chemical reaction, so they cannot be given? Incompatibility
When the patient's reaction may be just the opposite of what would be expected it is called what type of a response? paradoxical response
What is the passage of a substance through a filter or through a material that prevents passage of certain molecules? Filtration
When one drug changes the action of another drug, what is present? Drug interaction
What occurs when drugs do not mix well chemically. Attempts to mix them together in a syringe may cause a chemical reaction, so neither of the drugs can be given. Incompatibility
What are the most important components of maintaining a therapeutic blood level? Compliance and consistent, timely taking of the drugs by the client.
How are drugs usually carried throughout the whole body? Through the bloodstream and lymphatic system
What word defines what the drug does to the body? Pharmacodynamics
What is the formula to calculate the flow rate? Total of fluid to give divided by the Total time(minutes) multiplied by the Drop factor(drops/milliliter)= flow rate
Immediately after birth, what are some factors that influence drug absorption in the neonate patient? No gastric acid is present to help break down drugs, no intestinal bacteria or enzyme function is present to metabolize a drug, and the gastrointestinal (GI) transit time is slow.
The order reads: “1000 mL NS to be administered in 5 hours.” The drop factor is 15. What is the flow rate? 50 drops .... 1000mL/300min×1 5drops=15,000 15,000 drops/300min=50drops/min
Which medication route is directly into the gastrointestinal [GI] tract through oral, nasogastric tube, or rectal administration? Enteral
Created by: bsmymicareo