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Clincal Anatomy

Quiz 1

What are the classifications of joints? 1. Synovial Joints 2. Fibrous Joints 3. Cartilaginous Joints
Synovial Joint The bones are united by an articular (or joint) capsule, which is composed of outer FIBROUS layer (capsule), and lined by a serous SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE, spanning and enclosing the joint cavity.
Joint Cavity Aka ARTICULAR CAVITY. Is a space filled with synovial fluid, released by the synovial membrane.
Articular Cartilage Cartilage that surrounds the surfaces of the articulating bones within the joint capsule. The surrounding surfaces are covered lined with synovial membrane.
Fibrous Joints The bones are lined by fibrous tissue. The length of the tissue dictates the amount of movement at the fibrous joint. (e.g: Suture in the cranium)
Syndesmosis A type of fibrous joint that unites two separate bones with a sheet of fibrous tissue.; either a ligament or fibrous membrane. (e.g: Interosseous membrane membranes joins the ulna and radius in the forearm).
Dento-Alveolar Syndesmosis Also known as a gomphosis or socket, is a fibrous joint where a peg-like process fits into a socket articulation between the root of a tooth and the alveolar process of the maxilla & mandible.
Cartilaginous Joints The bones are united by a hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage.
What are the two types of cartilaginous joints? 1. Primary Cartilaginous Joints (Synchondroses) 2. Secondary Cartilaginous Joints (Symphyses)
Primary Cartilaginous Joints The bones of a Synchondroses are united by a hyaline cartilage which slightly bends during early life, when bones are still developing.
Give an example of a Synchondroses Temporary unions such as the synchondroses are present in long bone development. Bony epiphysis & the diaphysis are temporarily joined by an epiphysial plate. At full growth, the epiphysial plates becomes bone and the epiphysis fuses with the diaphysis.
Secondary Cartilaginous Joints The bones of a Symphyses are united by a fibrocartilage, resulting in a strong and slight moveable joint.
Given an example of a Symphyses Fibrocartilaginous Intervertebral (IV) discs of the spinal vertebra consists of binding tissue that joins each vertebrae together, and provides shock & absorption.
What is an Accessory Ligament? Supporting ligaments of the synovial joint, which are EXTRINSIC, (separate) or INTRINSIC (a thickening of a portion of the joint capsule).
What are the 6 major types of Synovial Joints? 1. Plane Joints 2. Hinge Joints 3. Saddle Joints 4. Condyloid Joints 5. Ball & Socket Joints 6. Pivot Joints
Plane Joint - Uniaxial. - Permits gliding of sliding movement in the plane of the articulating surfaces. Their tight joint capsules limit movement. - e.g Acromioclavicular Joint -- Acromion of scapula & clavicle
Hinge Joint - Uniaxial - Permits flexion & extension, only. - Movements occur in one sagittal plane and around a single transverse axis - Bones are united by a laterally place collateral ligament - e.g: Elbow joint - Distal humerus & proximal radius/ulna
Saddle Joint - Biaxial - Permits flexion/extension & abduction/adduction - Movements occur around two axis at right angles. Two planes, sagittal & frontal. - Circumduction - e.g: Carpometacarpal joint - Trapezium (carpal bone) & 1st metacarpal
Condyloid Joint - Biaxial - Permits flexion/extension & abduction/adduction - Limited circumduction - e.g: Metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joint - metacarpal & proximal phalax
Ball & Socket Joint - Multiaxial - Permits flexion/extension; abduction/adduction; medial/lateral rotation; circumduction - e.g: Hip joint - head of femur & acetabulum of the os coxae (hip)
Pivot Joint - Uniaxial - Permits rotation around a central axis - Rounded process of bone rotates within a sleeve or ring - e.g: Median Atlantoaxial joint C1 (Atlas) & C2 (Axis)
Articular Arteries Located in the synovial membrane in the articular capsule, joints receive blood from articular artieries that arise from the vessels around the joint. The arteries anastomose to form networks called the PERI-ARTICULAR ARTERIAL ANASTOMOSES.
Articular Veins Located in the synovial membrane in the joint capsule, accompany the articular arteries (venae comitantes)
Articular Nerves - Nerve endings are located in the capsule - In the distal part of the limbs (hands/feet), the nerves are branches of the cutaneous nerves supplying the overlying skin - Most articular nerves are branches of nerves that supply the associated muscle
Hilton Law States that nerves supplying a joint also supply the muscles moving the joint & skin covering their distal attachments
Propioception Provides an awareness of movement and position of the parts of the body via articular nerves that transmit sensory impulses from the joints