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Vocab Chapter 8


Aerobic Metabolism chemical and physical changes that take place within the cells in the presence of oxygen
afterload the force of contraction that the left ventricle has to generate to overcome the resistance in the aorta to eject blood
Airway Resistance the restriction of airflow that is related to the diameter of the airways
Alveolar Ventilation the amount of inspired air that reaches the alveoli of the lungs
Anaerobic Metabolism chemical and physical changes that take place within the cells without the presence of oxygen
Baroreceptors stretch-sensitive receptors located in the aortic arch and carotid bodies that constantly measure the blood pressure
Boyle's law the concept that the volume of a gas is inversely proportionate to the pressure
Cardiac Output the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle in 1 minute
Central Chemoreceptors receptors located in the medulla that are most sensitive to changes in carbon dioxide and the pH
Chemoreceptors receptors that constantly monitor the arterial content of O2, carbon dioxide, and the blood pH and stimulate a change is resp. rate and depth
Compliance the measure of the ability of the chest wall and lungs to stretch, distend and expand
Dead Air Space anatomical areas in the respiratory tract where air collects during inhalation but no gas exchange occurs
Deoxyhemoglobin hemoglobin that does not have any oxygen molecules attache to it
Dorsal Respiratory Group DRG respiratory rhythm center located in the brainstem that controls the rate and depth of normal quiet respiration
Frank-Starling law of the Heart the concept that the stretch of the muscle fiber in the left ventricle at the end of diastole determines the force necessary to eject the blood contained within
Frequency of Ventilation the number of ventilations in 1 minute
Glycolysis the breakdown of glucose into ppyruvic acid in the cells
Hydrostatic Pressure the blood pressure or force exerted against the inside of vessel walls; the "push " effect that forces fluid out of a capillary
Irritant Receptors receptors that are found in the airways and are sensitive to irritating gases, aerosol, and particles and result in a cough bronchoconstriction . incr Vent
J-receptors receptors that are found in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli and are sensitive to increases in the pressure in the capillary and cause rapid shallow ventilation when stimulated
Laryngeal Spasm a contraction of the vocal cords that causes them to close and prevents air from passing through into the trachea.
Microcirculation the flow of blood through the arterioles, capillaries, and venules that is the site of exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products with the cells.
Minute Ventilation the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute
Minute Volume the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in 1 minute
Oxyhemoglobin hemoglobin that has at least one oxygen molecule attached to it
Peripheral Chemoreceptors receptors located in the aortic arch and the carotid bodies that are somewhat sensitive to CO2 and pH but are most sensitive to the level of oxygen in the arterial blood
Plasma Oncotic pressure the force created by the presence of large molecules that tends to keep fluid inside a capillary by exerting a "pull" effect
Pontine Respiratory Center located on the pons of the brainstem, sends inhibitory impulses to the VRG1 to halt inspiration and permit exhalation
Preload the pressure generated in the left ventricle at the end of diastole.(resting phase of cardiac cycle)
Respiratory Control Center center in the brainstem that regulate respiration, including the dorsal respiratory group (DRG) and the ventral respiratory group (VRG)
Stretch Receptors receptors found in the smooth muscle of the airways that monitor the size and volume of the lungs. These receptors stimulate a decrease in the rate and volume of ventilation when stretched by high tidal volumes to protect against lung overinflation.
Stroke Volume the volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle with each contraction
Systemic Vascular Resistance the resistance of blood flow through a vessel based on the diameter of the vessel
Tidal Volume V_T the amount of air breathed in and out in one normal respiration
Ventilation/Perfusion V/Q the dynamic relationship between the amount of ventilation the alveoli receive and the amount of perfusion through the capillary surrounding the alveoli
Ventral Respiratory Group VRG respiratory rhythm center located in the brainstem that has both inspiratory and expiratory neurons. It becomes active and stimulates accessory muscles when an increase in ventilatory effort is necessary.
Created by: Pamilee3733