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Chemicals of Life

Biology Notes - Chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
What substances make up our cells and are vital for life? Water, Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats
How much of the body is made up of water? 80%
What is cytoplasm? A solution of many different substances in water
What are metabolic reactions? The chemical reactions that take place in all living organisms
What can't take place if chemicals are not dissolved in water? Metabolic Reactions
What is a solvent? The liquid in which a solute is dissolved in to form a solution
What are five reasons that water is important? 1. It is needed in the body as a solvent. 2. Metabolic Reactions 3. Transport 4. Removal of Waste Products 5. Keeping Cool
What are carbohydrates? Starches and Sugars
What do carbohydrate molecules contain? Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Atoms
Is there more carbon, hydrogen, or oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate molecule? There is twice as many hydrogen atoms than carbon and oxygen atoms in a carbohydrate molecule.
What is a monosaccharide or simple sugar? The simplest kinds of carbohydrates
What is the formula for a glucose molecule? C6H12O6
Are simple sugar molecules big or small? Very Small
Are simples sugar molecules soluble or insoluble in water? Soluble
Do simple sugar molecules taste sweet? Yes
What is a disaccharide or complex sugar? Two simple sugar molecules joined together
What are two examples of complex sugars? Sucrose and Maltose
What kind of carbohydrate is made up of one sugar unit? Monosaccharide or Simple Sugar
What kind of carbohydrate is made up of two sugar units? Disaccharide or Complex Sugar
Are complex sugars soluble or insoluble in water? Soluble
Do complex sugars taste sweet? Yes
What kind of carbohydrate is made up of hundreds of sugar units? Polysaccharide
What is a polysaccharide? A very large molecule made up of many simple sugars joined together
What are three examples of polysaccharides? Cellulose, Starch, and Glycogen
Are polysaccharides soluble or insoluble in water? Insoluble
Do polysaccharides taste sweet? No
How much energy is one gram of carbohydrate? 17 kJ
What is the unit used for measuring energy? kJ (Kilojoules)
How is energy released? Respiration
What is the word equation for respiration? Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water
What carbohydrate is usually used in respiration? Glucose
How do you do a Benedict's test? By adding Benedict's solution to a food, and heating it
If you use Benedict's solution on a food that contains reducing sugar, what color will it turn? Brick Red
If you use Benedict's solution on a food that doesn't contain a reducing sugar, what color will it turn? It will remain blue.
How do you test for starch? Add Iodine to a Sample of Food
In an iodine test, what color will it turn if starch is present? Blue-Black
In an iodine test, what color will it turn if starch isn't present? Orange-Brown
What is another word for fats? Lipids
What do fat molecules contain? Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Atoms
A fat molecule is made of four smaller molecules joined together. What are these four molecules? One is glycerol and the other three molecules are called fatty acids.
Are fats soluble or insoluble in water? Insoluble
What are oils? Fats that are liquid at room temperature
How much energy is one gram of fat? 39 kJ
When cells need energy, what do they use first? They use carbohydrates first. They use fats when all the available energy from carbohydrates has been used.
What is the extra energy from fats useful for? Storing Energy
What is the test for fats? Ethanol Emulsion Test
How do you do an ethanol emulsion test? Chop the food and shake it with ethanol. Pour the ethanol into water. If there was any fat in the food, then the fat ethanol mixture breaks up into millions of tiny droplets.
In an ethanol emulsion test, what does it mean if the mixture of water and ethanol remains transparent? There are not any fats in it.
What do protein molecules contain? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sometimes Sulfur Atoms
What are amino acids? Molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins
What does a change in the order of amino acids cause? A Different Protein
Are proteins soluble or insoluble in water? Either
What is the function of proteins? Making New Cells, Antibodies, Hemoglobin, and Enzymes
What are antibodies used for? Killing Bacteria and Viruses Inside The Body
What is the test for proteins? Biuret Test
How do you do a biuret test? Mix the food in water, and then add dilute copper sulfate solution. Then, gently add dilute potassium hydroxide solution.
What does a purple color mean in a biuret test? Protein is Present
What does a blue color mean in a biuret test? Protein is not Present
What is DNA? The chemical that makes up our genes and chromosomes
Which types of bases always link up together? A and T always link up together and C and G always link up together.
What is one function of hemoglobin? Transporting Oxygen
What do the two strands in DNA form? Helix
What is the function of DNA? To Provide A Code That Is Used To Determine What You Are
What is the test for sugars? Benedict's Test
Created by: bashirley12