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Chapter 1- Biology

Review for Chapter 1

How do we make observations in science? Use all senses
What is Quantitative data? uses numbers (ex. there were 7 boys and 5 girls)
What is qualitative Data? uses descriptions, characteristics (the plant looked unhealthy)
List the scientific method in order: Observe Research Hypothesis Experiment Collect Data Analyze Data Conclusion
What is a hypothesis? An educated guess based on research and prior knowledge
What is an independent (manipulated) variable? The variable you change in the experiment
What is a dependent variable? (responding) the variable that changes because of the manipulated variable.
What is spontaneous generation? The idea that living things come from non-living material
With what do we credit redi? The first controlled experiment
What did Leewenhock discover? Microorganisms in pond water
Explain Needham's experiment: Heated gravy in flasks, waited, microorganisms grew.
Explain Spallanzani's experiment: Boiled gravy, waited, microorganisms did not grow
Explain Pasteur's experiment: put a curved neck on a flask , boiled gravy, let it sit for a year. The curved neck allowed air to get to the gravy but the microorganisms were too heavy to get to the gravy. No microorganisms grew for a year- removed neck, microorganisms grew.
In what two instances is it impossible to conduct experiments? 1- immoral/unethical 2- happened in the past
How many variables are changed in a controlled experiment? Only one at a time
How is a theory different than a law? theories are widely accepted, can be changed, but can not be proven 100% true. Laws are facts that can be proven true.
List the characteristics of living things: Cells reproduce dna growth and development respond to change use energy homeostasis
What is homeostasis? maintain stable internal environment when external or internal changes occur
What is biology? The study of living things
Biosphere part of the earth that contains all ecosystems
ecosystems living/nonliving things in an area
community populations that live together in a defined area
population group of organisms of one type that live in the same area
organisms individual living things
group of cells tissues, organs, and organ systems
cells smallest unit of life
Molecules group of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compounds
length measured in meters with a meterstick
volume measured in liters with a graduated cylinder
mass measured in grams with a balance
force measured in newtons with a scale
temperature measured in celsius with a thermometer
what are two difference between an electron and a light microscope Electron-can only view dead specimens, very expensive Light- can view living and dead specimens, cheap (we use this microscope)
What are two advantages of the metric system? -math is easier -gives universal language to scientists -used worldwide -prefixes change/units stay the same
Created by: mrs.bur10