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What is Microbiology? The study of minute(small) living things (microorganisms) which live around us and/or inside us.
What are the major groups of microorganisms? Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Archaea.
What is the microorganism Bacteria in-till? Bacteriology- is the study of bacteria, reproduce by BINARY FISSURE, PROKARYOTIC (single cell), cell was is composed of PEPTIDOGLYCAN (PG)=sugar & amino acids.
What is the microorganism Viruses in-till? Virology- is the study of viruses, SUBMICROSCOPIC=to small to be seen by a ordinary light microscope, ACELLULAR= containing no cells, parastic (living as a parasite) entities (being) made up of a core of DNA or RNA.
What is the microorganism Fungi in-till? (singular- fungus); Mycology- the study of fungi, EUKARYOTIC, cell wall contains CHINTIN.
What is the microorganism Algae in-till? Phycology- the study of Algae (singular-alga)
What is the microorganism Protozoa in-till? singular- protozoan; Protozoology- the study of protozoa.
What is the microorganism Archaea in-till? lacks peptidoglycan PG, found in extreme environments.
What is a Genus? 1st name, always capitalized
What is a Species? 2nd name, not capitalized, specific epithet
What is Chemotherapy? treatment of infectious (microbes) & noninfectious (cancers) disease using chemical substances; this treatment should kill pathogens w/o harming the infectious host;
What are the two types of Chemotherapy? Synthetic-prepared chemicals in the lab and Antibiotics- chemicals produced naturally by bacteria or fungi
What is Fermentation? anaerobic(w/o oxygen) cellular process i which organic foods are converted into simpler compounds; chemical energy is produced; occurs in certain bacteria, yeast; converts sugar to acids, gases, & or alcohol, in the absence of air.
What is Pasteurization? a technique which kills most bacteria that cause spoilage by heating to a certain temperature.
Parasites Parasitology- the study of parasites; lives @ the expense of another organism or host; worms (helminths), insects, certain bacteria, viruses.
What is an Organism? a living thing(animal, plant, single cell); takes in & breaks down food for energy & nutrients; excretes undigested food as waste.
What is a Atom? all matter is made up of atoms; is the SMALLEST it of a chemical element; consist of nucleus, proton(+), neutron(o), shell w/ electrons (-) moving around the nucleus; atomic # protons in nucleus; Atomic weight=protons plus neutrons
What is an Element? a pure chemical substance consisting of a single atom distinguished by it's atomic number.
What is a Chemical Reaction? Process of bonding together atoms & separating atoms already bonded; occurs by gaining , losing, or sharing electrons from the outer most shell.
Does a Chemical Reaction require energy? YES; Endergonic= absorbs more energy that expels; Exergonic= expels (releases) more energy than absorbed.
What are the three types of Chemical Reaction? Synthesis, Decomposition, Exchange/ Displacement
What is Synthesis? 2 or more atoms, ions, molecules bind together forming a larger molecule (Anabolic/Anabolism). A+B=AB
What is Decomposition? breaks down into smaller parts (Catabolic/Catabolism) AB=A+B
What is Exchange/Displacement? Anabolic/Catabolic AB+C=AC+B or AB+CD=AC+BD
Chemical Bond(s) Diatomic= 2 atoms of the same element bond; Compound= 2 atoms of different chemical elements bind
What are the three types of Chemical Bonds? Ionic, Covalent, Hydrogen
Ionic Bond attraction between ions of opposite charge EX: NaCl
Covalent Bond atoms share one or more pairs of electrons; STRONG BOND EX:H2
Hydrogen Bond weak temporary bond; a hydrogen atom bonded to one oxygen or nitrogen atom is attracted to another oxygen or nitrogen atom bridge between different molecules.
What are the two groups of Chemical Compounds? Inorganic, Organic
What is a Inorganic Chemical Compound? WATER; most important & most abundant; LACKS CARBON molecule; IONIC bonds significant; polar molecule; SALT
What is a Organic Chemical Compound? contains carbon & hydrogen; large compounds called polymers; 4 groups of organic molecules= 1. Carbohydrate-sugar/straches/cellulose 2. Lipids-fats 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acide-DNA/RNA
What are the four levels of Proteins? Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary
What is Primary Protein level? line of amino acids (polypeptide chain)
What is Secondary Protein level? repetitious twist (helix) of folding of polypeptide chain
What is Tertiary Protein level? three dimensional folding of the structure (2 together)
What is Quaternary Protein level? two or more polypeptide's in their folded state, that make up protein.
Acid Dissociates into 1 or more hydrogen ions (H+) & 1 or more negative ions; proton donor
Bases 1 or more positive ions (cations) plus 1 or more negative OH- ions: an electron acceptor.
The role of PH? measures acidity or alkalinity of a substance; growth & kills; 7=neutral <7=acid >7=base
The role of a Buffer? either releases (H+) or binds (H+) to stabilize PH to prevent sudden change in the environment
The role of Lipids? provide protection, insulation, energy, important to cell membranes; important in plasma membrane.
What is Sucrose made of ? Glucose + Fluctose
What is Lactose? Glucose + Galactose
What is Maltose? Glucose + Glucose
What are three common Disaccharide? Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
Nucleic Acids made up f nucleotide (consisting of a base, sugar, phosphate group); there are two types DNA &RNA
DNA/ Deoxyribose double stranded; forms a double helix; gene; Bases= AGCT; stores genetic information
RNA/ Ribose single stranded; Bases= AGCU; functions in protein synthesis
ATP/ Adenasine Triphosphate ENERGY-carrying molecule; stores & supplies energy; high energy molecule
Created by: BBaker01
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