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Weather and Climate

Define Latitude A position North or South of the equator (0º-90º)
Define Longitutude A Position East or West of the Prime Meridian (0º-180º)
The Tropic of Capricon and it's location Important LONGITUDE, 23.5º S
Antarctic Circle and its location Important Longitude, 66.5º S
Equator and it's location The 0º center of the earth, separate the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
The Tropic of Cancer and its location 23.5º N
The Arctic Circle and its location 66.5º N
Prime Meridian Point 0º Longitude, runs through Grenwich England
International Date Line At exactly 180º, Where they day changes from one to the next, directly opposite of the prime meridian
Cold Fronts Shown by blue triangles in direction of travel, bring cold air
Warm Fronts shown by red half circles, show direction of warm air movement
High Pressure ones Means you have clear skies with no clouds, winds move CLOCKWISE around an H zone in the northern hemisphere, the direction of the front tells you what kind of air you will be getting (hot.humid/dry,cold)
Low Pressure zones indicate cloudy conditions and percipitation, Winds go COUNTERCLOCKWISE around these zones in the Northern hemisphere
Stationary front Mixed red and blue triangles and semi-circles, means the temperature is stationary, when hot and cold fronts hit one another, may notice a temp change as you cross the front
The Earth's rotation and seasons Occurs every 24 hours around earth's axis, tilted at 23.5º towards the North Star, as the earth travels the sun 1/2 is pointed towards it and 1/2 is pointed away, which accounts for seasons
Coriolis Effect The result of earths rotation on Winds and Ocean currents, affects the tide and makes storm patterns spin counterclockwise in NH
Day/Night and rotation occurs and the earth spins and turns away from the sun then back towards the sun, which rises in the East
Perihelion When the Earth is 147mil k away from the sun on JANUARY 4TH, during winter
Aphelion When the earth is 152mil k away from the sun on JULY 4TH, during summer
Eliptical orbit The earth does not rotate the sun in a perfect circle, it rotates in an elipsis
Tropical year 365 1/4 days taken to orbit the sun, leap year makes up for the extra time A
Axial Tilt the tilt of the earth's axis, summer = towards the sun, winter = away from the sun, always towards the north star, affects the Intensity of sunlight due to angle of sunlight, and affects the amount of atmosphere the sun has to penetrate
Beam Spreading The increased area over which sunlight/radiation is distributed when there is less of a solar angle/ (flashlight example p.48).
Beam Depletion When the sun is low above the horizon it has more atmosphere to go through because of it;s angle, when it is higher in the atmosphere it has less atomosphere to go through, the greater the thickness travelled the more the beam is depleted
*****Solar Constat The amount of radial energy at reaching the earths outer atmopshere has an average of 1361 m2, this is the solar energy recieved by a surface perpendicular to the incoming rays at the mean earth-sun distance, the sun emits a nearly constant amount of radi
Cause of the seasons Through the aixal tilt, as the earth rotates the sun and the north is facing away from it and then as the rotation and revolution continues we develop summer
March Equinoxt March 21-22, when the earth's incoming solar energy is equal in both hemispheres
June Solstice June 21-22 When the earth;s incoming solar energy is greatest in the Northern Hemisphere, First day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere (greatest availability of insolation) , Direct rays over Tropic of Cancer, Earth tilted towards the sun
September Equinox Sept 21-22 When the incoming solar energy is equal in both hemispheres
December Solistice Dec 21-22 When the incoming solar energy is greatest in the Southern Hemisphere, First day of Winter in the norhter Hemisphere
The Circle of Illuminati the dividing line between night and day, bisects the earth unequally, however at teh equator either side is equal, 12h day and night almost year round
Higher latitude areas and daylight Hav more extreme chanes in daylight hours, North of arctic circle there are 24 hour days/nights depending on the season
Daylight and temperature The more daylight hours the more energy is gathered from the sun = warmer days
Describe summer in the north pole The Ice and Snow reflect sulight making it hard for the ground to absorb warmth, the suns rays are not very direct in summer, even with 24 hours of dayliht the temperature does not warm up
Earths Early Atmosphere Mostly hydrogen and Helium, light gasses
****Seocondary atmosphere Mainy Water Vapor, CO2 and Nitrogen, may have come from outgassing of volcanoes, arctic snowballs, CO2 levels decreased by rainwater, etc
Current Atmospheric Composition Made of permanent and variable gasses Nitrogen, CO2, Water Vapor and Oxygen
Percentage of Nitrogen in the Atmosphere 78.8%
Percentage of Oxygen in the Atmosphere 20.95%
Percentage of Water Vapor in the Atmosphere 0.4%
Percentage of CO2 in the Atmosphere 0.047%
Water Vapor as a Greenhouse Gas Water Vapor is part of the Water cycle, clouds reflect sunlight and can trap energy, water vapor therefore is a greenhouse gas
CO2 and its importance Small portion of atmosphere (405ppm) supplied by plant and animal respiration, decay of organic material, volcanic erruptions, burning of fossil fuels, increased from 315ppm to 405ppm between 1960 and 2017
Methane (CH4) and it;s importance 1.7ppbillion in atmosphere (0.01ppm) emited by domestic cattle, rice cultivation, gas pipelines, greenhouse gas, more effective GG than CO2
Ozone (O) A pollutant near the surface of the earth, in the Stratosphere
Ozone Hole + consequences CFC gasses filter into the Stratosphere and react with ozone layer causing it to thin out, increases cancer rates, increased cataracts, can harm plant life
Toms Total Ozone Hole overa ntarctica, fast winds stop ozon from flooding into area so CFCs take over
Montreal Protocol 1987, International agreement to slow use of CFCs, has almost ceased CFC production since 1990s, long lifetime of CFCs will cause long repair time
****Aerosols Small liquid particles i atmosphere from human and natural processes , may help with cloud formation, have been proven to cause health problems
Anthropogenic air pollution Human caused air pollution, mainly from combuston of fossil fuels, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxides and Volatile Organic Compounds all cause respiratory problems, Photochemical smog is ex of these mixed with Sunlight
Clean Air Act 1970 Set saftey standards for air pollutants, states must enact plans to meet standards (smog testing)
Air Quality Index Ozone, Carbon Monoxid, PM, Nitrogen Dioxide, Sulfer Dioxide, dust/cloud levels can change AQI over the day
The four layers of the atmosphere Trophosphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere (Trostametherm)
Trophosphere, Temperatures warmer near surface, cooler further away, ex. of Lapse Rate, where the majority of weather,contains 85% of the atmosphere
Stratosphere Holds the ozone layer, protects from radiation, temperature increases with height (inversion) contains 20% of the atmosphere, responsible for earth's heating
Mesosphere Temperature decreases with height, second highest level of atmosphere (80km) above Sea Level)
Thermosphere Main sorce of atomic oxygen needed for the production of ozone, high temperatures are an expression of interal energy, - relate to speed at which molecules move
Lapse Rate When temperatures change with height
Inversion When Temperatures increase with height (type of lapse rate)
Atmospheric Pressure the force exherted by the atmosphere on a certain area, at sea level ~15lbs per square inch, decreases with height (pringles analogy)
Density The mass/volume of air molecules
Pressure and altitude pressure decreaes rapidly in the trophosphere because of a change in mass, change decreases as you rise in atmosphere, there is not a consistent change in air pressure
Barometer a tool used to measure air pressure, developed by Toruchelivs, the more pressure the more mercury in tube
Anaroid Barometer Shows changes in pressure through spring and pointer
Incehs of mecury the mercury levels in a barometer, average ~30 in at sea level
Milibars commonly used in meteorology, average 1013mb at sea level, ranges between 960-1050mb, hurricanes can cause very low pressure levels
Boliling point and altitude @ sea level water boils at 100ºC, as you rise in the atmosphere the boiling temp decreases because there is less atmospheric pressure preventing the water from boiling
Altitude and oxygen as you rise in altitude there is less oxygen available, abouve 26,000ft is called the "death zone"
Hypoxia Caused by lack of oxygen in the bran, impared night vision, bluish skin, decreased cerebral function
Ideal Gas Law Describes the changes in temperature and their affect in change on pressure, P=pRT (Pressure= density x constant x temperature), As temperature goes up, pressure goes up. Density and temperature are INVERSELY related
Energy the ability to perform work on some type of matter
work is done on matter when it is pushed, pulled or lifted
Kinetic energy Energy in use or in motion (i.e. flowing water, rolling ball, etc).
Potential Energy Energy that has not been used yet (Ball on a hill, food before it is eaten, batteries)
Conduction Molecule to molecule transfer (hot poker in a fire), most important near the surface of the earth
Confetion the transfr of energy by mass movements of fluid (wind water etc) , Boiling water heat causes water to boil making it rise, making cooler water move to the surface and causing a circlular cycle
Convection Rising and sinking air (vertical motions)
Sensible heat added energy that you can sense (i.e. temperature), not everything heats up at the same rate
Heat capacity (specfic heat) energy absorbed/temperature (joules over kelvin)
Specific heat heat capacity of a certian ass of substance, measured as joules/kelvin High specific heat means it requires more energy to raise the temperature
Ultraviolent (EM spectrum) 0.01-0.4 Wavelength (sunlight)
Visble Light (EM Spectrum 0.4-0.7 Wavelength (light we can see)
Near Infrared 0.7-4.0 Wavelength (the type of radiation we emit
Therma Infrared 4.0-100 Wavelength
The Peak Intensity of the sun The area where the amount of radiation is the most intense (0.5ppm)
Earths Peak Intensity 10ppm
Radiation Law (Stefan Boltzmann Law Tells us the energy given off by an object based on its temperature (the hotter the E=∂T^4, Sigma is constant, T is in kelvin, E = energy,
Peak Intensity and temperature the hotter the object the shorter the peak wavelength
Wien's law ∫| max = 2898/T, explains why the peak wavelength becomes shorter with hgher temperature
The suns ∫| Max 2898/6000k = 0.48 µm (in visible light spectrum) , gives off most of its energy at 0.2-0.3 µm
The Earths ∫| max 2898/290k = 9.99µm (in thermal infrared spectrum
Solar/Shortwave radiation range of wavelenghs that the sun emits
teresstrial radiation range of wavelengths that the earth gives off
UV Index and Solar Radiation shows the risk from overexpsoure to sunlight, affected by weather and ozone depletion, 0>11 scale
Effects of UV exposure skin cancer, cataracts, permature aging, supressed immune system function
how does sunscreen work? scatters UV radiation and dissapates it as heat,
Sunspots Peaks occur every 11 years but only cause a solar variation of `0.1, create a brighter sun that gives off more nergy
Solar constant radiation at the top of the atmosphere (where there is a solar angle of 90º), at the top of the atmosphere it is 1367wm^-2
ART and atmospheric solar radiation Radiation is absorbed, refleted, and transmitted as it passes hrough the atmosphere
Absorbsion and Emission ideas Absorbsion is similar to deposting -> increases temperature as more solar radiation is absorbed Emission is like spending (temperature of an object drops as it emits more radiation than it absorbs)
Kirchof's Law an object that is a good ABSORBER at some wavelength is also a good EMITTER at that wavelength
Black Body A HYPOTHETICAL body that is a perfect absober + emitter of radiation, the sun is the closest thing we have to a black body
Slective absorbers Objects that absorb some types of radiation but not others (atmosphere, gas, clouds, glass, play very important role in earth's radiation)
Selective gas absorbers water vapor, methane, CO2, responsible for affecting the earth's temerature
Atmospheric Widow the area in which wavelengths are not absorbed (8-11 µm)
Greenhouse Gasses absorb longwave radiaion and emit this radiation back into the earth's surface
Greenhouse effect A natural phenomena caused by greenhouse gasses that warms the earth, pollution has magnified this issue
Venus and runaway Greenhouse effect Surface temperature of Venus is 900ºF because of high levels of CO2 (92%) making the greenhouse effect extreme
Relfection when a surface turns back a portion of the radiati that strikes it
Albedo Gives us the reflection percentage (reflected radiation/total incident radiation)
Earth's average Albedo 30%
Scattering When small particles deflect radiation in different directios
Rayleigh Scattering Small gas molecules in atmosphere scatter blue wavelengths which develop the blue sky
Average amount of radiation absorbed by the surface 45%
Average radiation absorbed by the atmosphere 25%
Afterage radiation refleced by earth's surface (albedo) 30%
Why do bridges freeze before the road? because they emit radiation above and below their surface allowing their temperature to drop quickly
Global Energy Balance and it's significance over the year there is a consistent amount of energy in and energy out creating equillibrium, If this were not i effect the earth;s temperature would increae or decrease
Created by: DressageIsMagic