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micro ch 2

What are the components of capsules & slimes? polypeptides, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins
Klebsiella pnuemoniae causes lung infections
Porphyomonas gingivalis causes gingivitis
Bacteriodes causes plaque
Streptococcus salivarius can be found on babies as early as? 6-9 months old
Which of the following are virulence factors? (3 answers) fimbriae, slimes, and capsules
Bacteria can grow wherever water is present. When they have capsules & slimes they can form ___ where multiple organisms live together ecologically. biofilms
Capsules are typically viewed using__staining techniques. positive and negative
Of the following wavelengths, (AC circuits, television and radio broadcasting, infrared, gamma rays) which one has the highest energy? gamma rays
Who is given credit for making the first crude, simple microscope? leeuwenhoek
If the image is black and white and flat with great detail so that individual organelles can be seen, what kind of microscope was used to make the micrograph? transmission electron microscope
What is the total magnification if the objective lens magnifies 10x and the ocular lens magnifies 4x? 40
The purpose of a simple stain is ___ to view the specimens more clearly
Place the following steps of the Gram staining technique in order from the first step after preparing the smear: step 1: Apply Crystal violet for 60 seconds and rinse step 2: Apply Gram's iodine for 60 seconds and rinse step 3: Apply decolorizing agent for 10-20 seconds and rinse. step 4: Apply safranin for 60 seconds and rinse.
It's important to allow the smear to completely air dry before heat fixing it. (T/F) true
The amplitude is the ___ of the wave height
The wavelength is the distance between ___ one peak and the next
___ occurs when light passes from one medium, such as air, to another, such as glass, changing the direction of the light rays. refraction
When light passes through a convex lens, it is refracted ____ a focal point on the other side of the lens. The focal length is the distance to the focal point. Towards
Light passing through a concave lens is refracted ___ a focal point in front of the lens. away from
The electromagnetic spectrum ranges from high-frequency put them in order cosmic radiation, gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, infrared, terahertz radiation, radar, tv and radio, and ac circuits
Who is credited as being the first person to observe microbes, including bacteria, which he called “animalcules” and “wee little beasties.” Leewenhoek
Who invented the telescope? Galileo Galilei
___ is the differences in intensity between two objects or between an object and its background contrast
Contrast general principles are? Important in determining resolution, staining increases contrast, Use of light that is in phase increases contrast, (resolution ability to get a clean and defined image)
Total magnification = magnification of objective lens x magnification of ocular lens
What is a darkfield microscope? An opaque light stop inserted is used to produce a darkfield image. The light stop blocks light traveling directly from the illuminator to the objective lens, allowing only light reflected or refracted off the specimen to reach the eye.
What is an electron microscope? use magnets to focus electron beams similarly to the way that light microscopes use lenses to focus light.
What is a transmission electron microscope used for? shows well-defined internal structures of the cells because of varying levels of opacity in the specimen. (not in color)
What is a SEM used for? to render three-dimensional images of the surface structure of cells.
composed of single dye is called? simple stain
Examples of a differential (use more than one dye) stain are? Gram stain Acid-fast stain Endospore stain Histological stains
Examples of special stains (reveal specific structures) are? Negative (capsule) stain & Flagellar stain
Examples of a simple stain are? Methylene blue & Crystal violet
The gram stain process is used for? to distinguish between gram-neg and gram-positive bacteria
The steps in gram staining process are? 1) crystal violet 2) iodine 3) alcohol 4) safranin
Indian-ink is used for? to stain the background of a cell such as yeast
Created by: acacianero