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Advanced Biology 13

Genetics The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
Genes A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA.
Gametes A haploid reproductive cell such as an egg or sperm.
Somatic Cell Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg or their precursors.
Locus A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located.
Sexual Reproduction A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from both parents via the gametes.
Homologous Chromosomes A pair of chromosomes of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci.
Diploid Cell A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
Haploid Cell A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
Meiosis A modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication. Results in gametes.
Crossing Over The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during phrophase I of meiosis.
Chromatid One half of a duplicated chromosome.
Autosome A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex.
Fertilization The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
Created by: Mr.Devine