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Cell Bio Lecture 1

Cell Bio Midterm 1

Species are defined by the _____ information found in a single cell. hereditary
Define heredity. Central to the definition of life; parent organism passes down genetic information.
T or F: Whole organisms start out as multiple cells. False
All cells store hereditary information in the from of ____. DNA
T or F: Bacteria can decipher human DNA. True
DNA consists of what three components? Sugar, phosphate, base
DNA replication is considered to be ____-conservative. semi
The rate of DNA replication depends on _____. environment
The rate of DNA synthesis depends on _____. enzyme
All cells use ____ intermediates in the flow of information. RNA
Define transcription. Segments of DNA are used as templates for RNA; takes place in the nucleus.
Define translation. RNA directs the synthesis of proteins; takes place in the cytoplasm.
T or F: Prokaryotes and eukaryotes have different celluar machinery, but utilize the same mechanism for replication. True
All cells use ____ as catalysts. protein
What are the monomers of polypeptides? Amino acids
Name three functions of proteins. Enzymes, structural proteins, sending signals
DNA ____ represent one protein. segments
Name three functions of RNA. Catalytic, regulatory, structural
T or F: Prokaryotes have a splicing mechanism to cut out intron sequences from RNA. False
T or F: Multiple proteins can be made from one polypeptide. True
What are two functions of the plasma membrane? Acts as a barrier, concentrates nutrients, excretes waste products
The plasma membrane is ____, meaning part hydrophobic and part hydrophillic. amphiphilic
Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane for transport are highly _____, meaning they are similar across all organisms. conserved
If we want to increase the rate of a substance being imported into the cell, how does this get accomplished? Increasing the number of proteins found on the membrane.
Name the three branches of living organisms. Bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes
Define intragenic mutation. An existing gene is randomly modified on the DNA sequence.
Define gene duplication. An existing gene is duplicated.
Define segment shuffling. Two or more genes break and rejoin to form a hyrbid.
Define horizontal transfer. DNA from one genome is transferred to the genome of another organism.
Gene duplications give rise to _____, related genes within a single cell. families
T or F: Gene duplications can differentiate in the cell to have different functions. True
Define orthologs. Genes in two separate species derived from the same gene.
Define paralogs. Related genes from duplication within a single genome.
Define transformation. Bacteria take up DNA from the environment.
What is the model organism for bacteria? E.coli
What are the advantages to E.coli as a model organism? Adapts to conditions, grows rapidly, evolves by mutation at high speed
T or F: E.coli is the most studied model organism. True
T or F: Prokaryotes are rich in regulatory DNA. False
What are three differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? Eukaryotes: hold DNA in nucleus, have an elaborate cytoskeleton, contain a nuclear envelope, use phagocytosis
What is the endosymbiotic theory? A larger eukaryotic cell (with a nucleus) engulfed a smaller prokaryotic cell which gave rise to mitochondria and chloroplasts.
What is the evidence to support the endosymbiotic theory? Both mitochondria and chloroplasts are inherited differently than other components of the cell; not via nuclear DNA.
What is the purpose of regulatory DNA? To determine what DNA is expressed and when.
Where is regulatory DNA generally found? Non-coding region
T or F: Regulatory DNA is crucial for the formation of complex organisms. True
T or F: Yeasts are multicellular prokaryotes. False
Yeast undergo both _____ and ______ reproduction. vegetative, sexual
Yeast are both _____ and _____ in terms of their genome. Haploid, diploid
What are yeasts useful in helping us study about eukaryotes? Basics of DNA replication, cell division cycles
_____ is used as a plant model organism. Arabidopsis
_____ is used as a model organism to study development and cancer. C. elegans
T or F: All of the body cells of C. elegans are known. True
_____ is used as a model organism for inheritance studies and gene duplication. Drosophila
_____ is used as a model organism to study the developing embryo. Xenopus
What model organism is used to extrapolate onto humans? mouse
Protein cores are _____ which aid in protein folding. hydrophobic
T or F: The final folded structure of a protein maximizes its free energy. False
How do chaperones assist in protein folding? They prevent hydrophobic regions from becoming exposed and forming protein aggregates.
T or F: Protein domains fold independently. True
SH2 and SH3 domains have a _____ function. regulatory
C-terminal domains have a _____ function. kinase catalytic activity
Define ligands. Substances which bind to proteins with high specificity.
Ligands bind to an active-site via ____ bonds and a specific amino acid sequence. non-covalent
T or F: Protein phosphorylation is the most common type of protein regulation. True
Describe the process of protein phosphorylation. The enzyme-catalyzed transfer or a phosphate group (or ATP-> ADP) to the hydroxyl group of serine, threonine, or tyrosine on a protein.
Protein phosphorylation is catalyzed by ______. protein kinase
Dephosphorylation is catalyzed by _____. protein phosphatase
Describe molecular switches. A way to control protein activity by adding or removing a phosphate molecule.
A G-protein is active if it is _____-bound. GTP
A G-protein is inactive if it is _____-bound. GDP
Since GTP hydrolysis is very slow, a _____ molecule catalyzes this reaction. GTPase activating protein (GAP)
______ induces the release of GDP and replacement with GTP. guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)
Created by: goberoi